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Discussion

Confirming the Orderly Universe.

The new equation shows that the NASA satellite measurements are very precise. Also it helps to explain some inconsistencies that scientists had noticed, in planet's and moon's temperature behavior.

When a new planet at different solar system is discovered, scientists speculate whether it is habitable or not. They were counting only on the star's irradiation flux and on the distance from the star. Now it is possible to have a much more precise estimation of the planet's temperature, in cases when the planet's spin is already known.

The new equation brings order in the field of planets' temperatures measurements.

Revising the Understanding of Planet Properties.

The new equation provides some new information about the physical properties of planets that changes established understanding. The new equation can accurately predict a planet's mean surface temperature, without using any terms in the equation to account for atmospheric properties or for internal heat, and consequently that implies that the planet's mean surface temperature is not affected by the atmospheric composition or the internal heat. The new equation shows that there is no greenhouse effect on Titan (the Saturn's satellite, which has an atmosphere of 95% N₂ and 5% methane - a very strong greenhouse gas). The 5% methane gas is not enough to create a measurable greenhouse effect on Titan. This changes the established understanding that Titan, similarly to Earth, has a strong greenhouse effect.

And also there is the consequence that the gaseous planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune do not have any inner source of energy as it is wrongly assumed.

Revising the Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect.

Hansen et. al., (1981) gave an early estimate for the magnitude of the greenhouse effect as 33°C. This 33°C estimate was obtained by using the simple blackbody Equation (2) to calculate the Earth's effective radiating temperature (255 K), then comparing that to the NASA mean measured temperature (288 K), and assuming that the difference (the excess temperature of 33°C = 288 - 255 ) was entirely caused by the greenhouse effect.[22]

"Using values for planet Earth (with albedoa~ 0.3 and solar flux So = 1367 watts per square meter), this equation calculates that Te ~ 255 K."[23]

Notice that this calculated temperature of 255 K is less than the NASA's measured mean temperature of Tsat ~ 288 K by a difference of 33°C, and that this difference has been attributed to the greenhouse effect: . . . According to[24]| Hansen et. al. (1981)] . . . "The excess, Ts - Te, is the greenhouse effect of gases and clouds, which cause the mean radiating level to be above the surface."

However, attributing all of this difference (33°C = 288 - 255 ) entirely to the greenhouse effect is tantamount to assuming that the blackbody Equation (2) is perfect and has no error due to making simplifying assumptions -- which is unlikely. This is demonstrated in Table 1, which shows significant differences (Ts - Te) even for planets and moons having no atmosphere. Hence, the difference (Ts - Te) can be caused entirely or partly by factors other than a greenhouse effect.

The improved equation for the planet's surface temperature (Eqn.3) includes some additional factors to mathematically represent the planet's actual conditions more appropriately than the simplifying blackbody assumptions.

Using the new equation, the Earth's mean surface temperature (with no atmosphere) is calculated to be 288°K, which closely matches the NASA measured mean temperature (with atmosphere) of 288°K, leaving no error term (formerly 33°C) to attribute to a postulated atmospheric "greenhouse" effect.