### The new estimate closely matches the estimate from satellite observations

**The Planet Mean Surface Temperature Equation**

**Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ **

**gives wonderful results Tmean.earth = 287,74 K, Tmean.moon = 223,35 K, Tmean.mars = 213,21 K and **

**Tmean.mercury = 325,83 K **

**Using the new equation, the new estimate closely matches the estimate surface temperatures from satellite observations:**

** Tsat.mean.mercury = 340 K**

**Tsat.mean.earth = 288 K**

**Tsat.mean.moon = 220 K**

**Tsat.mean.mars = 210 K**

**Planet...Te.incompl....Tmean...Tsat.mean**

**.............equation....equation...measured**

** Mercury....439,6 K…..325,83 K…...340 K**

** It is time to abandon the old**

** Te = [ (1-a) S /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ incomplete equation.**

### The Planet Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation

**We have moved further from the incomplete effective temperature equation**

**(which is in common use right now, but actually it is an incomplete planet Te equation and that is why it gives us very confusing results)**

** Te = [ (1-a) S / 4 σ ]¹∕ ⁴ **

**a - is the planet's surface average albedo**

**S - is the solar flux, W/m²**

**σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant **

**We have discovered the Planet Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation**

** Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (1)**

**The Planet Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation is also based on the radiative equilibrium and on the Stefan-Boltzmann Law.**

** The Equation is being completed by adding to the incomplete Te equation the new parameters Φ, N, cp and the constant β.**

**Φ - is the dimensionless Solar Irradiation accepting factor**

**N - rotations /day, is the planet’s axial spin**

**cp – cal /gr*oC, is the planet's surface specific heat**

**β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – is the Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant.**

### Interesting, very interesting what we see here:

**Planet..Tsat.mean..Rotations..Tmin..Tmax**

** ............measured.....per day...................**

** Mercury..340 K.......1/176...100 K...700 K**

** Earth.......288 K..........1..........................**

** Moon......220 Κ.......1/29,5...100 K...390 K**

** Mars......210 K.......0,9747...130 K...308 K**

** Earth and Moon are at the same distance from the Sun R = 1 AU.**

** Earth and Mars have almost the same axial spin N = 1rotation /day.**

** Moon and Mars have almost the same satellite measured average temperatures 220 K and 210 K.**

** Mercury and Moon have the same minimum temperature 100 K.**

**Mars' minimum temperature is 130 K, which is much higher than for the closer to the Sun Mercury's and Moon's minimum temperature 100 K.**

** The planet's effective temperature old Te = [ (1-a) S /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ incomplete equation gives very confusing results.**

**And the faster rotating Earth and Mars appear to be relatively warmer planets.**

### We ended up to the following remarkable results

**Comparison of results the planet's Te calculated by the Incomplete Equation:**

** Te = [ (1-a) S / 4 σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**the planet's mean surface temperature Tmean calculated by the Planet's Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation:**

** Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (1)**

**and the planet's Tsat.mean measured by satellites:**

**Planet Te.incompl Tmean Tsat.mean**

**equation equation measured**

**Mercury 439,6 K 325,83 K 340 K**

** Earth 255 K 287,74 K 288 K**

** Moon 270,4 Κ 223,35 Κ 220 Κ**

**Mars 209,91 K 213,21 K 210 K**

**To be honest with you, at the beginning, I got by surprise myself with these results.**

**You see, I was searching for a mathematical approach…**

## .

### The Planet's Mean Surface Temperature Equation: Tmean = [Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ]¹∕ ⁴ (1)

**My name is Christos J. Vournas, M.Sc. mechanical engineer. **

**I live in Athens Greece.**

** My e-mail address is: **** vournas.christos@yahoo.com**

** The date is October 11, 2019**

**I launched this site to have an opportunity to publish my scientific discoveries on the Climate Change.**

**I have been studying the Planet Earth’s Climate Change since November 2015;**

First I discovered the *Reversed Milankovitch Cycle*.

Then I found *the faster a planet rotates (n2>n1) the higher is the planet’s average (mean) temperature T↑mean*.

* Φ -* the next discovery -

**is**

**the dimensionless Solar Irradiation accepting factor -**

**very important**The further studies led me to discover the *Rotating Planet Spherical Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law*

and the ** Planet's Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation.**

.

### The first step

** At very first look at the data table we distinguish the following:**

**Planet..Tsat.mean..Rotations..Tmin..Tmax**

**...........measured...per day......................**

** Mercury..340 K.....1/176....100 K...700 K**

** Earth.....288 K........1.............................**

** Moon....220 Κ.....1/29,5.....100 K...390 K**

**Mars.....210 K....0,9747.....130 K...308 K**

**The Earth's and Mars' by satellites temperatures measurements, in relation to the incident solar irradiation intensity, appear to be higher,**

** and it happens because of Earth's and Mars' faster rotation. **

** I should say here that I believe in NASA satellites temperatures measurements. None of my discoveries would be possible without NASA satellites very precise planet temperatures measurements.**

*It is the "magic" of the planet's spin. *

*When it is understood, it becomes science.*

**The closest to the sun ****planet ****Mercury receives**

**15,47**** times**** stronger**** solar irradiation**** intensity than the planet Mars does.**

**However on the Mercury's dark side**

**Tmin.mercury = 100 K****,**

** when on the Mars' dark side**

**Tmin.mars = 130 K****.**

**These are observations, these are the by satellites planets temperatures measurements.**

**And they cannot be explained otherwise but by the ****planet Mars'**

**171,5**** times faster rotation**** than planet Mercury's spin.**

### Moon is in our immediate neighborhood

**Moon rotates around its axis at a slow rate of 29,5 days.**

**The day on the Moon is 14,75 earth days long, and the night on the Moon is also 14,75 Earth days long.**

**Moon is in our immediate neighborhood. So Moon is at the same distance from the sun, as Earth, R=1 AU (astronomical unit).**

**The year average solar irradiation intensity on the top of atmosphere for Moon and Earth is the same**

** So = 1361 W/m².**

**We say "on the top of the atmosphere", it means the solar intensity which reaches a celestial body and then falls on it.**

**It is all right then, that during these 14,75 earth days long lunar day the Moon's surface gets warmed at much higher temperatures than the Earth.**

**Let's continue our observations:**

**Planet.Tsat.mean..Rotations.Tmax..Tmax /2**

** ............measured.....per day.................... **

**Mercury..340 K........1/176.....700 K...350 °C**

** Earth.......288 K..........1............................**

** Moon.......220 Κ.......1/29,5....390 K...195 °C**

* Mars........210 K.......0,9747...308 K...154 °C*

**As we can see for the slow rotating Mercury and for the slow rotating Moon:**

**Mercury: 340 K - 350 °C = - Δ 10 °C**

**Moon: 220 K - 195 °C = Δ 25 °C**

**On the other hand, for the fast rotating Mars**

**Tmax.mars /2 = 154 °C **

**Tsat.mars.mean = 210 K**

**210 K - 154 °C = Δ 56 °C**

**It proves that planet Mars, due to its fast spin, appears to be a relatively much warmer planet, than planet Mercury and Moon are.**

### There is the Planet Surface Rotational Warming Phenomenon

**I’ll try here in few simple sentences explain the very essence of how the planet rotational warming Phenomenon occurs.**

** Lets consider two identical planets F and S at the same distance from the sun. **

**Let’s assume the planet F spins on its axis Faster, and the planet S spins on its axis Slower. **

**Both planets F and S get the same intensity solar flux on their sunlit hemispheres. Consequently both planets receive the same exactly amount of solar radiative energy. **

**The slower rotating planet’s S sunlit hemisphere surface gets warmed at higher temperatures than the faster rotating planet’s F sunlit hemisphere. **

**The surfaces emit at σT⁴ intensity – it is the Stefan-Boltzmann emission law. **

**Thus the planet S emits more intensively from the sunlit side than the planet F.**

** There is more energy left for the planet F to accumulate then.**

** That is what makes the faster rotating planet F on the average a warmer planet.**

** That is how the Planet Surface Rotational Warming Phenomenon occurs.**

.

### Mars and Moon satellite measured mean surface temperatures comparison: 210 K and 220 K

**If Mars and Moon had the same exactly albedo, their satellite measured mean surface temperatures would have been exactly the same.**

**Mars and Moon have two major differences which equate each other:**

** Moon is at R = 1 AU distance from the sun and the solar flux on the top is So = 1.361 W/m² ( it is called the Solar constant). **

**Mars is at 1,524 AU distance from the sun and the solar flux on the top is**

** 2,32 times weaker than that on the Moon. **

**Mars rotates 28,783 times faster than Moon does.**

** So Mars is irradiated 2,32 times weaker, but Mars rotates 28,783 times faster.**

** And… for the same albedo, Mars and Moon have the same satellite measured mean temperatures.**

**It is obvious now, the Mars’ 28,783 times faster rotation equates the Moon’s 2,32 times higher solar irradiation.**

** Thus we are coming here again to the same conclusion:**

** The Faster a Planet Rotates, the Higher is the Planet's Average Temperature.**

*We may conclude that for a faster rotating planet there is the phenomenon of its warmer surface...*

### And it becomes very cold on the Moon at night

**Moon gets baked hard during its 14,75 earth days long lunar day.**

**And Moon also emits from its very hot daytime surface hard.**

**What else the very hot surface does but to emit hard, according to the Stefan-Boltzmann emission Law.**

**The very hot surface emits in fourth power of its very high absolute temperature.**

**Jemit ~ T⁴**

**A warm object in space loses heat via emission. The hotter is the object, the faster it loses heat. **

**So there is not much energy left to emit during the 14,75 earth days long lunar night.**

**And it becomes very cold on the Moon at night.**

**It is in our Earth's immediate neighborhood happens.**

.

### A Planet Universal Law Equation

**As you know, to maintain a Planet Universal Law Equation one has to study all the planets' behavior. In that way only one may come to general conclusions. That is why I call our Earth as a Planet Earth. After all Earth is a Planet and as a Planet it behaves in accordance to the Universal Laws - as all Planets in the Universe do.**

**The Planet's Mean Surface Temperature Equation has the wonderful ability the calculated results closely matching to the measured by satellites planets' mean temperatures. **

**This New Universal Equation can be applied to all the without atmosphere planets and moons in a solar system.**

*The more we compare the planets' surface temperatures, the more we understand the planets' surface warming phenomenon.*

**Φ -** is the dimensionless Solar Irradiation accepting factor - very important.

It is a realizing that a sphere's surface absorbs the incident solar irradiation not as a disk of the same diameter, but accordingly to its spherical shape.

** For a smooth spherical surface Φ = 0,47**

### The Mercury’s Φ = 0,47 Paradigm Confirmation

**We now have chosen Mercury for its very low albedo a=0,088 and for its very slow rotational spin N=1/175,938 rotations/day.**

**Mercury is most suitable for the incomplete effective temperature formula definition - a not rotating planet, or very slow rotating. Also it is a planet where albedo plays little role in energy budget.**

** These (Tmean, R, N, and albedo) parameters of the planets are all satellite measured. These parameters of the planets are all observations.**

** Planet….Mercury….Moon….Mars **

**Tsat.mean.340 K….220 K…210 K**

** R…......0,387 AU..1 AU..1,525 AU **

**1/R²…..6,6769….....1….…0,430 **

**N…1 /175,938..1 /29,531..0,9747**

** a.........0,068......0,11......0,250 **

**1-a...…0,932……0,89…….0,75**

** Let’s calculate, for comparison reason, the Mercury’s effective temperature with the old incomplete equation:**

** Te.incomplete.mercury = [ (1-a) So (1/R²) /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

** We have **

**(1-a) = 0,932**

** 1/R² = 6,6769**

** So = 1.362 W/m² - it is the Solar constant ( the solar flux on the top of Earth’s atmosphere ) **

**σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant**

** Te.incomplete.mercury = [ 0,932* 1.362 W/m² * 6,6769 /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

** Te.incomplete.mercury = ( 37.369.999.608,40 )¹∕ ⁴ = 439,67 K**

** Te.incomplete.mercury = 439,67 K**

** And we compare it with the**

** Tsat.mean.mercury = 340 K - the satellite measured Mercury’s mean surface temperature**

** Amazing, isn’t it? Why there is such a big difference between the measured Mercury’s mean surface temperature, Tmean = 340 K, which is the correct, ( I have not any doubt about the preciseness of satellite planets' temperatures measurements ) and the Mercury's Te by the effective temperature incomplete formula calculation Te = 439,67 K? **

**Let’s put these two temperatures together: **

**Te.incomplete.mercury = 439,67 K = 440 K**

** Tsat.mean.mercury = 340 K**

** Very big difference, a 100°C higher! But why the incomplete effective temperature equation gives such a wrongly higher result?**

** The answer is simple – it happens because the incomplete equation assumes planet absorbing solar energy as a disk and not as a sphere.**

** We know now that even a planet with a zero albedo reflects 0,53*S of the incident solar irradiation.**

** Imagine a completely black planet; imagine a completely invisible planet, a planet with a zero albedo. This planet still reflects 53 % of the incident on its surface solar irradiation.**

**The satellite measurements have confirmed it.**

**The Mercury’s Φ = 0,47 Paradigm has confirmed it:**

** Φ = 1 - 0,53 = 0,47 **

**Φ = 0,47**

**Φ - the dimensionless planet surface solar irradiation accepting factor**

**Planet reflects the (1-Φ + Φ*a) part of the incident on the planet's surface solar irradiation. Here "a" is the planet's average albedo. **

**So we always have:**

**Jreflected = (1-Φ + Φ*a)S**

**Jabsorbed = Φ(1-a)S**

.

### 1. Earth's Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Calculation: Tmean.earth

**R = 1 AU, is the Earth's distance from the sun in astronomical units**

** Earth’s albedo: a earth = 0,306**

** Earth is a smooth rocky planet, Earth’s surface solar irradiation accepting factor Φ earth = 0,47**

** β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – is the Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant**

** N = 1 rotation /per day, is Earth’s sidereal rotation spin**

** cp.earth = 1 cal/gr*oC, it is because Earth has a vast ocean. Generally speaking almost the whole Earth’s surface is wet.**

** We can call Earth a Planet Ocean.**

** σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant**

**So = 1.361 W/m² (So is the Solar constant)**

** Earth’s Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation Tmean.earth is:**

** Tmean.earth = [ Φ (1-a) So (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ **

**Τmean.earth = [ 0,47(1-0,306)1.361 W/m²(150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal *1rotations/day*1 cal/gr*oC)¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

** Τmean.earth = [ 0,47(1-0,306)1.361 W/m²(150*1*1)¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

** Τmean.earth = ( 6.854.905.906,50 )¹∕ ⁴ =**

** Tmean.earth = 287,74 Κ **

**And we compare it with the **

**Tsat.mean.earth = 288 K, measured by satellites.**

** These two temperatures, the calculated one, and the measured by satellites are almost identical.**

.

### 2. Moon’s Mean Surface Temperature Calculation: Tmean.moon

**The satellites measured:**

**Surface temp..Tmin..Tmean..Tmax**

** Kelvin.............100.K...220.K..390.K**

**Moon’s albedo: a moon = 0,11**

**R = 1 AU, is the Moon's distance from the sun in astronomical units**

**Moon’s sidereal rotation period is 27,32 days. But Moon is Earth’s satellite, so the lunar day is 29,5 days**

**Moon is a smooth rocky planet, Moon’s surface solar irradiation accepting factor Φ moon = 0,47**

**cp.moon = 0,19cal/gr*oC, moon’s surface is considered as a dry soil**

**β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – it is the Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant**

**N = 1/29,5 rotations /per day**

**σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant**

**So = 1.362 W/m² (So is the Solar constant)**

**Moon’s Mean Surface Temperature Equation Tmean.moon:**

** Tmean.moon = [ Φ (1-a) So (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**Tmean.moon = { 0,47 (1-0,11) 1.362 W/m² [150* (1/29,5)*0,19]¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ }¹∕ ⁴ =**

**= (2.488.581.418,96)¹∕ ⁴ = 223,35 K**

** Tmean.moon = 223,35 Κ**

**The newly calculated Moon’s Mean Surface Temperature differs only by 1,54% from that measured by satellites!**

**Tsat.mean.moon = 220 K, measured by satellites.**

.

### 3. Mars’ Mean Surface Temperature Calculation: Tmean.mars

**The satellites measured:**

**Surface temp..Tmin..Tmean..Tmax**

** Kelvin.............130.K...210.K..308.K**

**R = 1,524 AU, is the Mars' distance from the sun in astronomical units**

**(1/R²) = (1/1,524²) = 1/2,32**

**Mars has 2,32 times less solar irradiation intensity than Earth has**

**Mars’ albedo: a mars = 0,25**

**Mars performs 1 rotation every ( 24,622hours / 24hours/day ) = 1,026 day**

** N = 1 /1,026 = 0,9747 rotations /day **

**Mars is a smooth rocky planet, Mars’ surface solar irradiation accepting factor: Φ mars = 0,47**

**cp.mars = 0,18 cal/gr*oC, on Mars’ surface is prevalent the iron oxide**

**β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – it is the Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant**

**σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant**

**So = 1.361 W/m² the Solar constant**

**Mars' Mean Surface Temperature Equation is:**

**Tmean.mars = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**Tmean.mars = [ 0,47 (1-0,25) 1.361 W/m²*(1/2,32)*(150*0,9747*0,18)¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

** = ( 2.066.635.457,46 )¹∕ ⁴ = 213,21 K**

** Tmean.mars = 213,21 K**

** The calculated Mars’ mean surface temperature**

** Tmean.mars = 213,21 K is only by 1,53% higher than that measured by satellites**

** Tsat.mean.mars = 210 K !**

.

### 4. Mercury's Mean Surface Temperature Calculation: Tmean.mercury

**The satellites measured:**

**Surface temp..Tmin..Tmean..Tmax**

** Kelvin............100.K...340.K..700.K**

** N = 1/175,938 rotations/per day, planet Mercury solar day is 175,938 earth days.**

** Mercury's average distance from the sun is R=0,387AU. The solar irradiation on Mercury is (1/R²) = (1AU/0,387AU)²= 2,584²= 6,6769 times stronger than that on Earth.**

** Mercury’s albedo is: a mercury = 0,068 **

**Mercury is a smooth rocky planet, Mercury’s surface solar irradiation accepting factor: Φ mercury = 0,47 **

**Cp.mercury = 0,20 cal/gr*oC, Mercury’s surface is considered as a basalt rock**

** β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – it is the Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant**

** σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant**

** So = 1.361 W/m² the Solar constant**

** Planet Mercury’s Mean Surface Temperature Equation is:**

** Tmean.mercury = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ **

** Tmean.mercury = { 0,47(1-0,068) 1.361 W/m²*6,6769*[150* (1/175,938)*0,20]¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ }¹∕ ⁴ = (11.271.047.334,17)¹∕ ⁴ = 325,83 K**

** Tmean.mercury = 325,83 K**

** The calculated Mercury’s mean surface temperature Tmean.mercury = 325,83 K is only 4,35% lower than the measured by satellites.**

** Tsat.mean.mercury = 340 K !**

**The Tmean.mercury = 325,83 K is calculated for Mercury's Semi-major axis which is 0,387 AU. **

**But half of the time, Mercury comes closer to the sun at its Perihelion of 0,307 AU.**

**The fact Mercury's orbit has a moderate eccentricity e = 0,205 partly explains the difference between the calculated Tmean.mercury = 325,83 K and the measured Tsat = 340 K .**

.

### We can confirm now with great confidence

**We have collected the results now:**

** Te.incompl Tmean Tsat.mean**

** Mercury 439,6 K 325,83 K 340 Κ**

** Earth 255 K 287,74 K 288 K**

** Moon 270,4 Κ 223,35 Κ 220 Κ**

** Mars 209,91 K 213,21 K 210 K**

**the calculated with Planet's Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation and the measured by satellites are almost the same, very much alike.**

**It is a situation that happens once in a lifetime in science.**

**Te = [ (1-a) S / 4 σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**is incomplete because it is based only on two parameters:**

**1. On the average solar flux S W/m² on the top of a planet’s atmosphere and**

**2. The planet’s average albedo a.**

**The planet's without-atmosphere mean surface temperature equation has to include all the planet surface basic properties and all the characteristic parameters.**

**3. The planet's axial spin N rotations/day.**

**4. The thermal property of the surface (the specific heat cp).**

**5. The planet surface solar irradiation accepting factor Φ ( the spherical surface’s primer solar irradiation absorbing property).**

**Altogether these parameters are combined in the Planet's Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation:**

** Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (1)**

.

### Earth-Moon temperatures comparison - there is something else very interesting happens

**The faster (than Moon) Earth's rotation smooths the average heat. The higher (than Moon) Earth's surface specific heat (oceanic waters vs dry regolith), also smooths the average heat. Consequently the daytime Earth's surface temperature (compared to Moon) lessens, and the nighttime Earth's surface temperature (compared to Moon) rises. Earth receives the same amount of solar heat (per unit area) from sun as Moon – for the same albedo. And Earth emits the same amount of solar heat, as the Moon does.**

**But there is something else very interesting happens.**

**It is the difference between Earth’s and Moon’s emitting temperatures. At the daytime Earth’s surface is warmed at a much lower temperatures and therefore at the daytime Earth’s surface emits IR radiation at a much lower intensities. So the intensity of Earth’s daytime IR radiation is much lower (than Moon's).**

**As a result, there is a great amount of energy – compared to Moon – “saved” on Earth during the daytime emission.. **

**This “saved” energy should be emitted by Earth's surface during the nighttime then. At the night-time Earth’s surface is warmer than Moon's and therefore Earth’s surface at night-time is at a higher temperatures.**

** So the intensity of Earth’s night-time IR radiation is higher. **

**There is always a balance**

** The energy in = the energy out**

** But there is something else very interesting happens.**

** In order to achieve that balance Earth’s night-time IR emitting intensity should be much higher than the night-time IR emitting intensity of the Moon. **

**Now we should take notice of the nonlinearity of the Stefan-Boltzmann emission law. Consequently the night-time temperatures on Earth rise higher (compared to Moon) than the daytime temperatures on Earth lessens.**

** So the average Earth’s surface temperature is warmer (compared to the Moon). Thus Earth’s Tmean.earth = 288 K and Moon’s Tmean.moon = 220 K **

**The faster rotation and the higher specific heat does not make sun to put more energy in the Earth’s surface. What the faster rotation and the higher specific heat do is to modify the way Earth’s surface emits, the same amount as Moon, of energy (per unit area).**

** Earth emits IR radiation at lower temperatures during the daytime and at higher temperatures at night-time. Because of the nonlinearity of this process according to the Stefan-Boltzmann emission law, Earth ends up to have on average warmer surface than Moon.**

** The night-time temperatures on Earth rise higher (compared to Moon) than the day-time temperatures on Earth lessens. Earth receives (for the same albedo and per unit area) the same as Moon amount of solar energy. This energy is “welcomed” on each planet and processed in a unique for each planet way. **

**To illustrate the above conclusions I’ll try to demonstrate on the Earth-Moon temperatures comparison rough example: **

*Surface temperatures*

* ………….min……mean……max*

* Tmin↑↑→T↑mean ←T↓max *

*Moon…100 K...220 K …390 K*

*Δ………..+84 K +68 K….- 60 Κ*

*Earth…184K↑↑.288 K↑.330 K↓*

** ****So we shall have for the faster rotating Earth, compared to the Moon: **

**Tmin↑↑→ T↑mean ← T↓max**

**+84↑↑→ +68↑mean ← -60↓**

** The faster a planet rotates (n2>n1) the higher is the planet’s average (mean) temperature T↑mean.**

**To emphasize we should mention that Moon’s max and min temperatures are measured on Moon’s equator, and Earth’s max and min temperatures are not.**

** Earth’s max and min temperatures are measured on continents, and not on oceanic waters. Otherwise the Δmin would have been even bigger and the Δmax would have been much smaller. **

**This rough example nevertheless illustrates that for the faster rotating and covered with water (higher cp) Earth compared with Moon the average temperature should be higher.**

** The planet’s faster rotation and the planet’s higher specific heat “cp” not only smooths, but also processes ( Δmin > Δmax ), the same incoming solar heat, but in a different emission pattern.**

.

### Earth, Moon and Mars - two very important observations - conclusions

**We are ready now to make two very important observations. **

**1. Moon and Mars**

** Moon's satellite measured Tsat.mean.moon = 220 K**

** Mars' satellite measured Tsat.mean.mars = 210 K**

** These two observed temperatures on the different planets (Mars and Moon) are very close. **

**The solar flux on Moon is So = 1.361 W/m². The solar flux on Mars is S.mars = 586,4 W/m². **

**Thus we observe here that there can be planets with diff****erent**** solar irradiation fluxes, and yet the planets may have (for equal albedo) the same mean surface temperatures.**

** So we may have: **

**Many planets with different solar irradiation fluxes, and yet the planets may have (for equal albedo) the same mean surface temperatures.**

** Conclusion:**

**Many different solar fluxes (for equal albedo) can create the same mean surface temperatures.**

** 2. Moon and Earth**

** Moon's satellite measured Tsat.mean.moon = 220 K**

** Earth's satellite measured Tsat.mean.earth = 288 K**

** These two observed temperatures on the different planets (Moon and Earth) are very different. **

**The solar flux on Moon is So = 1.361 W/m². The solar flux on Earth is So = 1.361 W/m².**

** Thus we observe here that there can be planets with the same solar irradiation fluxes, and yet the planets may have (for equal albedo) very different mean surface temperatures. **

**So we may have: **

**Many planets with the same solar irradiation fluxes, and yet the planets may have (for equal albedo) different mean surface temperatures.**

** Conclusion:**

** Many different global temperature distributions (for equal albedo) can balance the same solar flux. **

**These two very important observations - conclusions lead us to the formulation of the Mean Surface Temperature Equation.**

.

### The Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law

**Planet Energy Budget:**

** Solar energy absorbed by a Hemisphere with radius "r" after reflection and dispersion:**

** Jabs = Φ*πr²S (1-a) (W)**

** Total energy emitted to space from the entire planet:**

** Jemit = A*σΤmean⁴ /(β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ (W)**

**a - is the planet's average albedo**

**Φ - is the dimensionless Solar Irradiation accepting factor**

**Φ = 0,47 for a smooth spherical surface**

**(1 - Φ + Φ*a)S - is the reflected fraction of the incident on the planet solar flux**

**Φ(1 - a)S - is the absorbed fraction of the incident on the planet solar flux**

**S - is the Solar Flux at the top of the atmosphere (W/m²)**

**A = 4πr² (m²), where r – is the planet's radius**

**Tmean - is the Planet's Mean Temperature (K)**

** (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ - dimensionless, is the Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Warming Ability**

** Φ*S*(1-a) = 4σTmean⁴ /(β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ **

** Solving for Tmean we obtain the mean surface temperature equation: **

**Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (K)**

** β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – is the Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant **

**N rotations/day, is the planet’s sidereal rotation spin **

**cp – is the planet's surface specific heat**

** cp.earth = 1 cal/gr*oC, it is because Earth has a vast ocean. Generally speaking almost the entire Earth’s surface is wet.**

** We can call Earth a Planet Ocean.**

**cp = 0,19 cal/gr*oC, for dry soil rocky planets, like Moon and Mercury. Mars has an iron oxide F2O3 surface, cp.mars = 0,18 cal/gr*oC **

** σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant **

**The year-round averaged energy flux at the top of the Earth's atmosphere is Sο = 1.361 W/m². With an albedo a = 0,306 and a factor Φ = 0,47 we have:**

** Tmean.earth = 287,74 K or 15°C. **

**This temperature is confirmed by the satellites measured **

**Tsat.mean.earth = 288 K.**

.

### The Fast Rotating Planet Earth

**So far we came to the end of this presentation. Its topic was to present the Planet's Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation:**

**Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (K)**

**This Equation is based on the incomplete effective temperature equation:**

**Te = [ (1-a) S / 4 σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**And also it is based on the discovered of the Rotating Planet Spherical Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law:**

**Jemit = σΤmean⁴/(β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ (W/m²)**

**The Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law is based on a simple thought.**

**It is based on the thought, that physical phenomenon which distracts the black body surfaces from the instant emitting the absorbed solar radiative energy back to space, warms the black body surface up.**

**In our case those distracting physical phenomena are the planet’s sidereal rotation, N rotations/day, and the planet’s surface specific heat, cp cal/gr oC.**

**Thus we have the measured by satellites Earth’s**

** Tsat.mean.earth = 288 K**

** to be the same as the calculated by the mean surface temperature equation**

** Tmean.earth = 287,74 K.**

.

### Earth is warmer because Earth rotates faster and because Earth’s surface is covered with water

** We had to answer these two questions:**

** 1. Why Earth’s atmosphere doesn’t affect the Global Warming? **

**It is proven now by the Planet's Mean Surface Temperature Equation calculations. There aren’t any atmospheric factors in the Equation. Nevertheless the Equation produces very reasonable results:**

** Tmean.earth = 287,74 K, **

**calculated by the Equation, which is the same as the**

** Tsat.mean.earth = 288 K,**

** measured by satellites.**

** Tmean.moon = 223,35 K, calculated by the Equation, which is almost identical with the**

** Tsat.mean.moon = 220 K, measured by satellites.**

** 2. What causes the Global Warming then?**

** The Global Warming is happening due to the orbital forcing.**

** And… what keeps Earth warm at Tmean.earth = 288 K, when Moon is at Tmean.moon = 220 K? Why Moon is on average 68 oC colder? It is very cold at night there and it is very hot during the day…**

** Earth is warmer because Earth rotates faster and because Earth’s surface is covered with water.**

** Does the Earth’s atmosphere act as a blanket that warms Earth’s surface?**

** No, it does not.**

.

### Earth's average SW absorbed solar energy: Jsw.absorbed.average = 111 W/m²

**A planet reflects incoming short wave solar radiation. **

**A planet's surface has reflecting properties. **

**1. The planet's albedo "a". It is a surface quality's dependent value.**

** 2. The planet's spherical shape. For a smooth planet the solar irradiation reflection is (0,53 + Φ*a)*Jincoming. **

**Φ is the planet's spherical surface solar irradiation accepting factor.**

** Φ = 0,47 for a smooth sphere**

**Thus**

**1 - Φ = 0,53**

**0,53 is for smooth sphere's specular reflection **

**and "a" albedo is for diffuse reflection. **

**What we had till now: **

**Jsw.incoming - Jsw.reflected = Jsw.absorbed**

** Here**

** Jsw.absorbed = (1-a) * Jsw.incoming**

** And**

** Jsw.reflected = a* Jsw.incoming**

**What we have now is the following:**

** Jsw.incoming - Jsw.reflected = Jsw.absorbed**

** Φ = (1 - 0,53) = 0,47 **

**Φ = 0,47 **

**Φ is the planet's spherical surface solar irradiation accepting factor.**

**(1 - Φ + Φ*a)S - is the reflected fraction of the incident on the planet solar flux**

** Φ(1 - a)S - is the absorbed fraction of the incident on the planet solar flux**

** or**

** Jsw.reflected = (0,53 + Φ*a) * Jsw.incoming**

** And**

** Jsw.absorbed = Φ(1 - a) * Jsw.incoming**

** Where **

**(0,53 + Φ*a) + Φ* (1-a) = 0,53 + Φ*a + Φ - Φ*a = **

**= 0,53 + Φ = 0,53 + 0,47 = 1**

**Conclusion: The planet's absorbed fraction of the SW incoming radiation in total is:**

** Jsw.absorbed = 0,47 * (1-a) * Jsw.incoming **

**Total energy emitted to space from the entire planet:**

** Jemit = A*σΤmean⁴ /(β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ (W) **

**Α - is the planet's surface (m²)**

**For Planet Earth**

**So = 1.361 W/m², the Solar constant**

**a = 0,306 the Earth's albedo**

** Jsw.absorbed = 0,47 * (1-a) * 1.361 W/m² =**

** = 0,47*0,694*1.361 W/m² = 444,26 W/m²**

** Averaged on the entire Earth's surface we obtain: **

**Jsw.absorbed.average = [ 0,47*(1-a)*1.361 W/m² ] /4 =**

** = [ 0,47*0,694*1.361 W/m² ] /4 = 444,26 W/m² /4 =**

** = 111,07 W/m²**

** Jsw.absorbed.average = 111 W/m²**

**What was the Earth's mean surface temperature 3,5 billion years ago ( 3,5 Bya ) ? **

**Lets see:**

** Sun's irradiating intensity was weaker.**

** It was only 75 % of the present,**

** S = 0,75*So**

** And Earth rotated twice as fast then, **

**1 rotation in 12 hours.**

** Lets calculate:**

** Earth’s Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature calculation **

**Te.earth.3,5 Bya**

** So = 1.362 W/m² ( "So" is the present Solar constant )**

** Earth’s albedo: aearth = 0,30**

**Φearth = 0,47 **

** β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – is a Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant**

** N = 2 rotations /per day, was Earth’s sidereal rotation spin at 3,5 Bya**

** cp.earth = 1 cal/gr*oC**

** σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant**

** Earth’s Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation Tmean.earth is:**

** Tmean.earth = [ Φ (1-a) 0,75*So (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

** Τmean.earth.3,5 Bya = [ 0,47(1-0,30)*0,75*1.362 W/m²(150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal *2rotations/day*1 cal/gr*oC)¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

** Τmean.earth.3,5 Bya = [ 0,47(1-0,30)*0,75*1.362 W/m²(150*2*1)¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ = **

**Τmean.earth.3.5 Bya = ( 6.167.274.722,0 )¹∕ ⁴ = 280,23 K**

** Tmean.earth.3.5 Bya = 280,23 Κ**

**or Tmean.earth.3,5 Bya = 7 oC.**

** Conclusion: 3,5 billion years ago planet Earth had a sustainable for life mean temperature of 7 oC. **

**From Wikipedia: **

**" Among the earliest fossil evidence for life is microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone in Western Australia,[63]".**

.

### The blackbody surface properties

**A blackbody planet surface is meant as a classical blackbody surface approaching.**

** Here are the blackbody's properties: **

**1. Blackbody does not reflect the incident on its surface radiation. Blackbody absorbs the entire incident on its surface radiation.**

** 2. Stefan-Boltzmann blackbody emission law is:**

** Je = σ*Τe⁴ **

**Notice:**

** Te is the blackbody's temperature (surface) at every given moment. When the blackbody is not irradiated, the classical blackbody gradually cools down, gradually emitting away its accumulated energy. **

**The classical blackbody concept assumes blackbody's surface being warmed by some other than incoming irradiation source of energy - see the Sun's paradigm.**

** Sun emits like a blackbody, but it emits its own inner energy source's energy. Sun is not considered as an irradiation receiver. And sun has a continuous stable temperature.**

** Therefore we have here two different blackbody theory concepts.**

** a. The blackbody with the stable surface temperature due to its infinitive inner source (sun, stars).**

** b. The blackbody with no inner energy source.**

** This blackbody's emission temperature relays on the incoming outer irradiation only.**

**-**

**Also in the classical blackbody definition it is said that the incident on the blackbody irradiation is totally absorbed, warms the blackbody and achieves an equilibrium emission temperature Te.**

** It is an assumption. **

**This assumption, therefore, led to the next assumption: **** the planet like a blackbody emitting behavior.**

** And, consequently, it resulted to the planet's Te equation, in which it is assumed that planet's surface is interacting with the incoming irradiation as by being in a uniform equilibrium temperature.**

** Consequently it was assumed that planet's surface had a constant equilibrium temperature (which was only the incident solar irradiation dependent value) and the only thing the planet's surface did was to emit in infrared spectrum out to space the entire absorbed solar energy. **

** 3. When irradiated, the blackbody's surface has emission temperature according to the Stefan-Boltzmann Law:**

** Te = (Total incident W /Total area m² *σ)¹∕ ⁴ K**

** σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant.**

** Notice: This emission temperature is only the incoming irradiation energy depended value. Consequently when the incoming irradiation on the blackbody's surface stops, at that very moment the blackbody's emission temperature disappears.**

** It happens because no blackbody's surface accumulates energy.**

** 4. Blackbody interacts with the entire incident on the blackbody's surface radiation.**

** 5. Blackbody's emission temperature depends only on the quantity of the incident radiative energy per unit area.**

** 6. Blackbody is considered only as blackbody's surface physical properties. Blackbody is only a surface without "body".**

** 7. Blackbody does not consist from any kind of a matter. Blackbody has not a mass. Thus blackbody has not a specific heat.**

** Blackbody's cp = 0.**

** 8. Blackbody has surface dimensions. So blackbody has the radiated area and blackbody has the emitting area.**

** 9. The entire blackbody's surface area is the blackbody's emitting area.**

** 10. The blackbody's surface has an infinitive conductivity. **

**11. All the incident on the blackbody's surface radiative energy is instantly and evenly distributed upon the entire blackbody's surface.**

** 12. The radiative energy incident on the blackbody's surface the same very instant the blackbody's surface emits this energy away. **

**-**

** But what happens there on the rotating real planet's surface?**

** The rotating real planet's surface, when it turns to the sunlit side, is an already warm at some temperature, from the previous day, planet's surface.**

** Thus, when assuming the planet's surface behaving as a blackbody, we face the combination of two different initial blackbody surfaces.**

** a. The one with an inner energy source. **

**And**

**b. The one warmed by an outer irradiation. **

**-**

**Planet is not a blackbody. **

**Planet reflects the (1-Φ + Φ*a)S part of the incident on the planet's surface solar irradiation "S". **

**And**

**Planet "absorbs" only the Φ(1 - a) part of the incident on the planet's surface solar irradiation**

**Here "a" is the planet's average albedo and "Φ" is the planet's solar irradiation accepting factor.**

** For smooth planet without thick atmosphere, Earth included, Φ=0,47**

.

### A Real Planet's case

**A Real Planet's Case **

**When a planet is considered as a blackbody's properties celestial body we are having very confusing results.**

** A real planet, not a theoretical one, but a real planet "in flesh and blood" is very much different from a blackbody's properties celestial object.**

** The Real Planet's Surface Properties:**

** 1. The planet's surface has not an infinitive conductivity. Right the opposite takes place. The planet's surface conductivity is very small, when compared with the solar irradiation intensity and the planet's surface infrared emissivity intensity.**

** 2. The planet's surface has thermal behavior properties. The planet's surface has a specific heat, cp.**

** 3. The incident on the planet solar irradiation does not being distributed instantly and evenly on the entire planet's surface area.**

** 4. Planet does not accept the entire solar irradiation incident in planet's direction. Planet accepts only a small fraction of the incoming solar irradiation. This happens because of the planet's albedo, and because of the planet's smooth and spherical surface reflecting qualities, which we refer to as "the planet's solar irradiation accepting factor Φ".**

**Planet reflects the (1-Φ + Φ*a) part of the incident on the planet's surface solar irradiation. **

**And**

**Planet absorbs only the Φ(1 - a) part of the incident on the planet's surface solar irradiation.**

**Here "a" is the planet's average albedo and "Φ" is the planet's solar irradiation accepting factor.**

** For smooth planet without thick atmosphere, Earth included, Φ=0,47**

** 5. Planet's surface has not a constant intensity solar irradiation effect. Planet's surface rotates under the solar flux. This phenomenon is dicisive for the planet's surface infrared emittance distribution. **

**The real planet's surface infrared radiation emittance distribution intensity is a planet's rotational speed dependent physical phenomenon.**

.

### Planet's Surface Radiative Equilibrium

**Planet's Surface Radiative Equilibrium**

**What solar irradiated planet's surface does is to develop the incoming energy to achieve a radiative equilibrium.**

**It is an equation: energy in = energy out.**

**The mechanisms planet has to achieve the surface radiative equilibrium:**

**1. The negative feedbacks.**

**a). The rising precipitation, due to warming from the excess energy, rises the Earth's cloud cover. This in turn magnifies the planet's albedo. So some less energy reaches the surface.**

**b). The loss of Arctic oceanic ice cover, due to warming from the excess energy, opens the Arctic oceanic waters. This in turn magnifies the Arctic oceanic surface emissivity (water has higher emissivity compared to the ice, and water has a much higher emissivity compared to the snow covered Arctic oceanic ice fields). So some more energy is emitted to space from the Earth's surface to come closer to the radiative equilibrium (radiative balance).**

**2. The heat accumulation and the rise of the planet's average temperature.**

**Some of the solar energy that is not emitted out to space forms the accumulated heat, mostly in the oceanic waters and also in the land masses. The heat accumulation rises the planet's temperature. When the planet's temperature risen planet's infrared radiation energy emissions rise too.**

**Thus the Planet's Surface remains in Radiative Equilibrium.**

### I dedicate this work to the great mathematician and astronomer of the 20th century Milutin Milankovitch

### The NASA planets surface temperatures measurements are all we have to work with.

And we believe **in NASA measurements**, because they are very precise and very professionally performed.

And I underline here again, **we have to rely only on the NASA measurements.** The NASA planets surface temperatures measurements are all we have to work with.

### Resume

**A Planet-Without-Atmosphere Effective Temperature Equation, the Te Equation which is based on the radiative equilibrium and on the Stefan-Boltzmann Law, and which is in common use right now:**

**Te = [ (1-a) S / 4 σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**is actually an incomplete Te equation and that is why it gives us very confusing results.**

**A planet-without-atmosphere effective temperature equation**

**Te = [ (1-a) S / 4 σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**is incomplete because it is based only on two parameters:**

**1. On the average solar flux S W/m² on the top of a planet’s atmosphere and**

**2. The planet’s average albedo "a".**

**We use much more parameters to calculate a planet mean temperature. Planet is a celestial body with more major features when calculating planet mean temperature to consider.**

**The planet-without-atmosphere mean temperature equation has to include all the planet’s major properties and all the characteristic parameters.**

**3. The planet's axial spin N rotations/day**

**4. The thermal property of the surface (the specific heat cp)**

**5. The planet's surface solar irradiation accepting factor Φ (the spherical surface’s primer geometrical quality). For Mercury, Moon, Earth and Mars without atmosphere Φ = 0,47.**

**Earth is considered without atmosphere because Earth’s atmosphere is very thin and it does not affect Earth’s Mean Surface Temperature.**

**Altogether these parameters are combined in the Planet-Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation:**

**Tmean.planet = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (1)**

**A Planet-Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation produces very reasonable results:**

**Tmean.earth = 287,74 K, calculated with the Equation, which is identical with the Tsat.mean.earth = 288 K, measured by satellites.**

**Tmean.moon = 223,35 K, calculated with the Equation, which is almost the same with the Tsat.mean.moon = 220 K, measured by satellites.**

**The Planet-Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation gives us planet mean surface temperature values very close to the satellite measured planet mean temperatures.**

** We have collected the results now: **

**Comparison of results the planet Te calculated by the Incomplete Equation, the planet Tmean calculated by the Equation, and the planet Tsat.mean measured by satellites:**

**Planet Te.incompl. Tmean Tsat.mean**

**equation equation measured**

** Mercury 439,67 K 325,83 K 340 K**

**Earth 255 K 287,74 K 288 K**

**Moon 270,4 Κ 223,35Κ 220 Κ**

**Mars 209,91 K 213,21 K 210 K**** **

**As you can see Tmean.earth = 288,36 K.**

**288 K - 255 K = Δ 33 oC **

**Δ 33 οC does not exist in the real world.**

A more detailed analysis follows below

**The planet Earth's and the planet Mars' faster rotation creates the necessary level of the "solar irradiation - planet surface" interaction phenomenon...**

** which results in the day-time much lower surface temperatures and, consequently, in much lower day-time surface infrared radiation emissions**

**and which results in higher planet surface 24-hours average temperatures.**

**The planet Earth’s and the planet Mars’ faster rotation is that what creates the necessary interaction for the incident on the planets surface solar energy much more efficient absorption. **

**It is all in the details...**

**The by a smooth spherical body solar irradiation absorption**

**Φ = 0,47**

### Φ factor explanation

**Φ factor explanation**

** "Φ" is an important factor in the Planet's Mean Surface Temperature Equation:**

** Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (K) **

**It is very important the understanding what is really going on with by planets the solar irradiation "absorption".**

**What we have now is the following:**

** Jsw.incoming - Jsw.reflected = Jsw.absorbed**

** Φ = (1-0,53) = 0,47**

** Φ = 0,47**

** Φ is the planet's spherical surface solar irradiation accepting factor.**

** Jsw.reflected = (0,53 + Φ*a) * Jsw.incoming**

** And Jsw.absorbed = Φ* (1-a) * Jsw.incoming**

** Where **

**(0,53 + Φ*a) + Φ* (1-a) = 0,53 + Φ*a + Φ - Φ*a =**

** = 0,53 + Φ = 0,53 + 0,47 = 1 **

**The solar irradiation reflection, when integrated over a planet sunlit hemisphere is:**

** Jsw.reflected = (0,53 + Φ*a) * Jsw.incoming**

** Jsw.reflected = (0,53 + Φ*a) *S *π r² **

**For a planet with albedo a = 0 **

**we shall have**

** Jsw.reflected = (0,53 + Φ*0) *S *π r² =**

** = Jsw.reflected = 0,53 *S *π r²**

**The fraction left for hemisphere to absorb is: **

**Φ = 1 - 0,53 = 0,47 **

**and**

** Jabs = Φ (1 - a ) S π r² **

**The factor Φ = 0,47 "translates" the absorption of a disk into the absorption of a hemisphere with the same radius.**

** When covering a disk with a hemisphere of the same radius the hemisphere's surface area is 2π r².**

** The incident Solar energy on the hemisphere's area is the same as on disk:**

** Jdirect = π r² S**

** The absorbed Solar energy by the hemisphere's area of 2π r² is:**

** Jabs = 0,47*( 1 - a) π r² S**

** It happens because a hemisphere of the same radius "r" absorbs only the 0,47 part of the directly incident on the disk of the same radius Solar irradiation.**

** In spite of hemisphere having twice the area of the disk, it absorbs only the 0,47 part of the directly incident on the disk Solar irradiation.**

** Jabs = Φ (1 - a ) S π r² , where Φ = 0,47 for smooth without atmosphere planets. and Φ = 1 for gaseous planets, as Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus, Venus, Titan.**

** Gaseous planets do not have a surface to reflect radiation. The solar irradiation is captured in the thousands of kilometers gaseous abyss. The gaseous planets have only the albedo "a".**

** And Φ = 1 for heavy cratered planets, as Calisto and Rhea ( not smooth surface planets, without atmosphere ). The heavy cratered planets have the ability to capture the incoming light in their multiple craters and canyons. The heavy cratered planets have only the albedo "a".**

** Another thing that I should explain is that planet's albedo actually doesn't represent a primer reflection. It is a kind of a secondary reflection ( a homogenous dispersion of light also out into space ).**

** That light is visible and measurable and is called albedo. The primer reflection from a spherical hemisphere cannot be seen from some distance from the planet. It can only be seen by an observer being on the planet's surface.**

**(1 - Φ) is the blinding surface reflection right in the observer's eye. **

**That is why the albedo "a" and the factor "Φ" we consider as different values.**

** Both of them, the albedo "a" and the factor "Φ" cooperate in the Planet Rotating Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law:**

** Φ*S*(1-a) = 4σTmean⁴ /(β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ **

**And they also cooperate in the Planet's Mean Surface Temperature Equation:**

** Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ ( K ) **

**Planet Energy Budget:**

** Solar energy absorbed by a Hemisphere with radius "r" after reflection and dispersion:**

** Jabs = Φ*πr²S (1-a) ( W )**

** Total energy emitted to space from a whole planet:**

** Jemit = A*σΤmean⁴ /(β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ ( W ) **

**Φ - is a dimensionless Solar Irradiation accepting factor **

**a - is the planet's average albedo**

**(1-Φ + Φ*a )S - is the reflected fraction of the incident on the planet solar flux**

** S - is the Solar Flux at the top of atmosphere ( W/m² )**

** Α - is the total planet's surface area ( m² )**

** A = 4πr² (m²), where "r" – is the planet's radius**

** Tmean - is the Planet's Mean Temperature ( K ) **

**(β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ - dimensionless, is a Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Warming Ability**

** Jabs = Φ (1- a ) S W/m² on sunlit hemisphere**

** Jabs.earth = 0,47 ( 1 - 0,306 ) So π r² =**

** = 0,47*0,694 * 1.361* π r² ( W ) =**

** Jabs.earth = 0,326 So π r² =**

** = 0,326* 1.361 π r² =**

** = 444,26 π r² ( W ) **

**What is going on here is that instead of **

**Jabs.earth = 0,694* 1.361 π r² ( W ) **

**we should consider **

**Jabs.earth = 0,326* 1.361 π r² ( W ). **

**Averaged on the entire Earth's surface we obtain: **

**Jsw.absorbed.average = [ 0,47*(1-a)*1.361 W/m² ] /4 =**

**= [ 0,47*0,694*1.361W/m² ] /4 = 444,26 W/m2 /4 = 111,07 W/m²**

** Jsw.absorbed.average = 111,07 W/m²**

**or 111 W/m²**

### Mars and Moon satellite measured mean temperatures comparison: 210 K and 220 K

**Mars and Moon **

** 210 K and 220 K**

** Let’s compare then:**

** Moon: Tsat.moon = 220K **

**Moon’s albedo is a moon = 0,11**

** What is left to absorb is (1 – a moon) = (1- 0,11) = 0,89 **

**Mars: Tsat.mars = 210 K**

** Mars’ albedo is a mars = 0,25**

** What is left to absorb is (1 – a mars) = (1 – 0,25) = 0,75**

** Mars /Moon satellite measured temperatures comparison:**

** Tsat.mars /Tsat.moon = 210 K /220 K = 0,9545**

** Mars /Moon what is left to absorb (which relates in ¼ powers) comparison, or in other words**

** the Mars /Moon albedo determined solar irradiation absorption ability:**

** ( 0,75 /0,89 )¹∕ ⁴ = ( 0,8427 )¹∕ ⁴ = 0,9581**

** Conclusions:**

** 1. Mars /Moon satellite measured temperatures comparison**

** ( 0,9545 )**

** is almost identical with the Mars /Moon albedo determined solar irradiation absorption ability**

** ( 0,9581 )**

** 2. If Mars and Moon had the same exactly albedo, their satellites measured temperatures would have been exactly the same.**

** 3. Mars and Moon have two major differences which equate each other:**

** The first major difference is the distance from the sun both Mars and Moon have.**

** Moon is at R = 1 AU distance from the sun and the solar flux on the top is So = 1.361 W/m² **

**( it is called the Solar constant ).**

** Mars is at 1,524 AU distance from the sun and the solar flux on the top is **

**S = So*(1/R²) = So*(1/1,524²) = So*1/2,32 .**

** (1/R²) = (1/1,524²) = 1/2,32**

** Mars has 2,32 times less solar irradiation intensity than Earth and Moon have.**

** Consequently the solar flux on the Mar’s top is 2,32 times weaker than that on the Moon. **

**The second major difference is the sidereal rotation period both Mars and Moon have. **

**Moon performs 1 rotation every 29,531 earth days.**

** Mars performs 1 rotation every ( 24,622hours / 24hours/day ) = 1,026 day.**

** Consequently Mars rotates 29,531 /1,026 = 28,783 times faster than Moon does.**

** So Mars is irradiated 2,32 times weaker, but Mars rotates 28,783 times faster.**

**And… for the same albedo, Mars and Moon have the same satellite measured mean temperatures.**

**We shall use now from the Planet's Mean Surface Temperature Equation Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**In the Planet's Mean Surface Temperature Equation the planet's axial spin "N" is in fourth root**

**the (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴**

**The rotation difference's fourth root is**

**(28,783)¹∕ ⁴ = 2,3162 **

**And the irradiating /rotating comparison **

**2,32 /(28,783)¹∕ ⁴ = 2,32 /2,3162 = 1,001625**

**It is only 0,1625% difference**

**When rounded the difference is 0,16 %**

** It is obvious now, the Mars’ 28,783 times faster rotation equates the Moon’s 2,32 times higher solar irradiation.**

** That is why the 28,783 times faster rotating Mars has almost the same average satellites measured temperature as the 2,32 times stronger solar irradiated Moon. **

**Thus we are coming here again to the same conclusion: **

**The Faster a Planet Rotates, the Higher is the Planet's Average Temperature.**

**And**

**It is the confirmation that the planet's axial spin (the rotations per day) "N" should be considered in the Tmean planet's surface temperature equation in the fourth root:**

** Tmean.planet = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴.**

.

### Mercury / Moon / Mars satellite measured mean temperatures 340 K, 220 K and 210 K comparison

**These ( Tmean, R, N, and albedo ) planets' parameters are all satellites measured. These planets' parameters are all observations.**

** Planet….Mercury….Moon….Mars**

** Tsat.mean.340 K….220 K…210 K**

** R…......0,387 AU..1 AU..1,525 AU**

** 1/R²…..6.6769….....1….…0,430**

** N…1 /175..1 /29,531..0,9747**

** a......0,068......0,11......0,250**

** Mercury: **

**Tsat.mean = 340 K**

** [ (1/R²)*(N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ = [ 6,6769*(1/175)¹∕ ⁴ ] ¹∕ ⁴ = 1,1640**

** Moon: **

**Tsat.mean = 220 K**

** [ (1/R²)*(N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ = [ 1*(1/29,531)¹∕ ⁴ ] ¹∕ ⁴ = 0,8093**

** Mars: **

**Tsat.mean = 210 K**

** [ (1/R²)*(N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ = [ 0,430*(0,9747)¹∕ ⁴ ] ¹∕ ⁴ = 0,8090**

**Let's compare**

** Mercury [ (1/R²)*(N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ / Moon [ (1/R²)*(N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ = 1,1640 /0,8093 = 1,4383**

**Tmean.mercury /Tmean.moon = 340 K /220 K = 1,5454…**

** They are almost close, because Mercury and Moon have different (1-albedo) values: a moon = 0,11 and amercury = 0,068. For Moon (1-0,11)=0,89 and for Mercury (1-0,68)=0,932**

** Moon /Mars = 0,8093 /0,8090 = 1,00037 or 0,037 %**

** If Moon and Mars had the same albedo a moon = 0,11 they would both have the same satellite measured mean temperature Tmean = 220 K. Mars' albedo is amars = 0,25.**

.

### Mercury / Mars satellite measured mean temperatures 340 K and 210 K comparison

**These ( Tmean, R, N, and albedo ) planets' parameters are all satellites measured. These planets' parameters are all observations.**

** Planet….Mercury….Moon….Mars**

** Tsat.mean.340 K….220 K…210 K**

** R…......0,387 AU..1 AU..1,525 AU**

** 1/R²…..6.6769….....1….…0,430**

** N…....1 /175..1 /29,531..0,9747**

** a......0,068......0,11......0,250 **

**1-a….0,932……0,89…….0,75**

**coeff..1,2179...............0,7524**

**Comparison coefficient calculation**

** [ (1-a) (1/R²) (N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**Mercury:**

** Tsat.mean = 340 K **

**[ (1-a)*(1/R²)*(N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

**= [ 0,932*6,6769*(1/175)¹∕ ⁴ ] ¹∕ ⁴ = 1,1437**

**Mars:**

** Tsat.mean = 210 K**

** [ (1-a)*(1/R²)*(N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

**= [ 0,75*0,430*(0,9747)¹∕ ⁴ ] ¹∕ ⁴ = 0,7524 **

**Let's compare**

**Mercury coeff. / Mars coeff. =**

** = 1,1437 /0,7524 = 1,5200**

**And**

** Tmean.mercury /Tmean.mars = **

**= 340 K /210 K = 1,6190 **

**There is only 6,50 % difference**

**Conclusion:**

** Everything is all right. Everything is based on observations.**

**The comparison coefficient is:**

** [ (1-a) (1/R²) (N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**And**

** The planet's axial spin (rotations per day) "N" should be considered in the Tmean equation in the fourth root:**

** Tmean.planet = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴.**

.

### Earth / Europa satellite measured mean temperatures 288 K and 102 K comparison

**All the data below are satellites measurements. All the data below are observations.**

** Planet….Earth….Europa**

** Tsat.mean 288 K….102 K**

** R…...........1 AU…5,2044 AU**

** 1/R²………1…….0,0369**

** N****………....1……1/3,5512 rot./day**

** a…………..0,30……0,63**

** (1-a)………0,70……0,37**

**coeff..0,91469....0,3158**

**Comparison coefficient calculation**

** [ (1-a) (1/R²) (N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**Earth: **

**Tsat.mean = 288 K **

**[ (1-a)*(1/R²)*(N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

**= ( 0,70 * 1 * 1 )¹∕ ⁴ = 0,91469**

**Europa:**

** Tsat.mean = 102 K**

** [ (1-a)*(1/R²)*(N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

**= [ 0,37*0,0369*(1/3,5512)¹∕ ⁴ ] ¹∕ ⁴ = 0,3158 **

**Let's compare**

**Earth coeff. /Europa coeff. =**

**= 0.91469 /0,3158 = 2,8964**

**And**

** Tmean.earth /Tmean.europa =**

**= 288 K /102 K = 2,8235**

**Conclusion:**

** Everything is all right. Everything is based on observations. **

**Notice:**

** We could successfully compare Earth /Europa ( 288 K /102 K ) satellite measured mean temperatures because both Earth and Europa have two identical major features.**

** Φ earth = 0,47 because Earth has a smooth surface and Φeuropa = 0,47 because Europa also has a smooth surface.**

**cp.earth = 1 cal/gr*°C, it is because Earth has a vast ocean. Generally speaking almost the whole Earth’s surface is wet. We can call Earth a Planet Ocean. **

**Europa is an ice-crust planet without atmosphere, Europa’s surface consists of water ice crust, cp.europa = 1cal/gr*°C.**

**The comparison coefficient is:**

** [ (1-a) (1/R²) (N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**And**

**It is the confirmation that the planet's axial spin (rotations per day) "N" should be considered in the Tmean planet equation in the fourth root:**

** Tmean.planet = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

.

### Earth /Mars satellite measured mean temperatures 288 K and 210 K comparison

** These ( Tmean, R, N, cp and albedo ) planets' parameters are all satellites measured.**

** These planets' parameters are all observations.**

** Planet…....Earth.….Moon….Mars **

**Tsat.mean.288 K….220 K…210 K**

** R…...............1... AU..1 AU..1,525 AU**

** 1/R²…..........1…........1….…0,430 **

**N…..............1....1 /29,531..0,9747**

**cp................1.........0,19.......0,18**

** a..............0,30......0,136......0,250 **

**1-a…........0,70……0,864…….0,75**

** coeff...........1...................0,72748 **

**As we can see Earth and Mars have very close (1-a); for Earth 0,70 and for Mars 0,75. **

**Also Earth and Mars have very close N; for Earth N = 1 rotation /day, and for Mars N = 0,9747 rotation /day. **

**Earth and Mars both have the same Φ = 0,47 solar irradiation accepting factor.**

**Thus the comparison coefficient can be limited as follows:**

**Comparison coefficient calculation **

**[ (1/R²) (cp)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**Earth: **

**Tsat.mean = 288 K **

**[ ****(1/R²)*(cp)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

** = [ 1*(1)¹∕ ⁴ ] ¹∕ ⁴ = 1**

**Mars: **

**Tsat.mean = 210 K**

** [ (1/R²)*(cp)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

** = [ 0,430*(0,18)¹∕ ⁴ ] ¹∕ ⁴ = ( 0,430*0,65136 )¹∕ ⁴ =**

**= ( 0,2801 )¹∕ ⁴ = 0,72748**

** Let's compare**

**Earth coeff. / Mars coeff. =**

** = 1 /0,72748 = 1,3746**

**And **

**Tmean.earth /Tmean.mars = **

**= 288 K /210 K = 1,3714**

**Conclusion:**

** Everything is all right. Everything is based on observations in the comparison coefficient **

**[ (1/R²) (cp)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴**

** And It is the confirmation that the planet's specific heat "cp" should be considered in the Tmean equation in the fourth root: **

**Tmean.planet = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴.**

.

### Gaseous Planets Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune T1bar mean temperatures 165 K, 134 K, 72 K comparison

**All data are satellites measurements.**

** R – semi-major axis in AU (Astronomical Units)**

** a – planet’s average albedo**

** N – rotations /day – planet’s spin **

**T1bar – planet atmosphere at 1 bar average temperature in Kelvin**

** Planet.…Jupiter…..Saturn….Neptune**

** R………....5,2044…..9,5826.….30,33 **

**1/R²…….0,0369…0,01089…0,001087**

** a……………0,503…0,342…….0,290**

** 1-a………..0,497…0,658…….0,710**

** N………….2,4181…2,2727….1,4896**

** T 1 bar…...165 K….134 K……72 K**

** Coeff...0,388880... 0,306264…0,170881**

** Comparison coefficient calculation**

** [ (1-a) (1/R²) (N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴**

** Jupiter**

** [ (1-a) (1/R²) (N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

** = [ 0,497*0,0369*(2,4181)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ = **

**= ( 0,497*0,0369*1,2470 ]¹∕ ⁴ = ( 0,0228691 )¹∕ ⁴ =**

** = 0,388880**

** Saturn **

**[ (1-a) (1/R²) (N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

** = [ 0,658*0,01089*(2,2727)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

** = ( 0,658*0,01089*1,2278 )¹∕ ⁴ = ( 0,0087980 )¹∕ ⁴ =**

** = 0,306264**

** Neptune [ (1-a) (1/R²) (N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

** = [ 0,710*0,001087*(1,4896)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

** = ( 0,710*0,001087*1,1048 )¹∕ ⁴ = ( 0,000852651 )¹∕ ⁴ = **

**= 0,170881**

** Let’s compare**

** Jupiter coeff. /Saturn coeff. =**

** = 0,388880 /0,306264 = 1,2698 **

**T1bar.jupiter /T1bar.saturn = 165 /134 = 1,2313**

** Jupiter coeff. / Neptune coeff. =**

** = 0,388880 /0,170881 = 2,2757 **

**T1bar.jupiter /T1bar.neptune = 165 /72 = 2,2917**

** Saturn coeff. /Neptune coeff. = **

**= 0,306264 /0,170881 = 1,7923**

** T1bar.saturn /T1bar.neptune = 134 /72 = 1,8611**

**Notice: The atmospheric composition of Jupiter is closer to the atmospheric composition of Neptune, that is why their mutual comparison matches best.**

** Conclusion:**

** Gaseous planets Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune average T1bar temperatures relate the same way as the rocky inner planets Mercury, Moon and Mars average surface temperatures, and also as the Earth with Europa average surface temperatures.**

**The planets are being separated in groups (Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune - H2), (Mercury, Moon and Mars - regolith), and (Earth with Europa - H2O) only by their similar specific heat.**

**The comparison coefficient is the same:**

** [ (1-a) (1/R²) (N)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ **

**And It is a confirmation that the planet's axial spin (rotations per day) "N" should be considered in the Tmean.planet equation in the fourth root: **

**Tmean.planet = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴.**

.

### About the origin of the planet's spherical surface solar irradiation accepting factor Φ

**What we had until now was:**

** Jsw.incoming - Jsw.reflected = Jsw.absorbed**

** or**

** Jsw.absorbed = (1 - a)*Jsw.incoming**

** where a - is the planet's average albedo**

** And this led to the incomplete (black-body) equation:**

** Te.incompl. = [ (1-a) S /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

** What we have now is the following:**

** Jsw.incoming - Jsw.reflected = Jsw.absorbed**

** Φ = (1-0,53) = 0,47**

** Φ = 0,47**

** Φ is the planet's spherical surface solar irradiation accepting factor. **

**Jsw.reflected = (0,53 + Φ*a) * Jsw.incoming **

**And Jsw.absorbed = Φ* (1-a) * Jsw.incoming**

** Where**

** (0,53 + Φ*a) + Φ* (1-a) = 0,53 + Φ*a + Φ - Φ*a =**

** = 0,53 + Φ = 0,53 + 0,47 = 1**

** The solar irradiation reflection, when integrated over a planet sunlit hemisphere is:**

** Jsw.reflected = (0,53 + Φ*a) * Jsw.incoming**

** or**

** Jsw.reflected = (0,53 + Φ*a) *S *π r² **

**A planet with albedo a = 0**

** Let's imagine a planet with albedo less than Mercury's a = 0,068;**

** Let's imagine a planet with albedo a = 0**

** This planet still reflects:**

** Jsw.reflected = (0,53 + Φ*0) *S *π r²**

** or**

** Jsw.reflected = 0,53 *S *π r²**

** Φ = (1-0,53) = 0,47 **

**Φ = 0,47 **

**Φ is the planet spherical surface solar irradiation accepting factor.**

** Φ plays an important role in the Planet Mean Surface Temperature Equation, because only this way we can calculate the**

** Jsw.absorbed = Φ* (1-a) * Jsw.incoming = Φ (1-a) S **

**and the final result is:**

** Tmean.planet = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

.

### Planet’s Mars Te misfortunate coincidence

**We should mention here, that a smooth surface spherical body, as the planet Mars is, doesn’t accept and absorb all the solar radiation falling on the hemisphere.**

** Only the 0,47*S of the solar energy’s amount is accepted by the hemisphere. The rest 0,53*S is reflected back to space. **

**That is why Φ = 0,47 what is left for surface to absorb. **

**Now we have to say about the planet’s albedo "a". The planet’s albedo describes the dispersed on the surface secondary reflection to space fraction of the falling on the hemisphere solar light.**

** Thus a planet’s surface absorbs only the Φ*(1– a) fraction of the incident on the hemisphere solar energy. **

**Comparison of results planet's Mars Tsat.mean.mars measured by satellites, ****and the planet's Mars Te calculated by Incomplete and Tmean.mars calculated by Tmean.planet equation:**

**Planet..Tsat.mean…Te.incomplete…..Tmean**

** Mars ………210 K ……...209,91 K …….213,21 K**

**We have here planet's Mars mean temperature measured by satellites:**

** Tsat.mean.mars = 210 K**

**calculated by incomplete:**

**Te.mars.incompl = [ (1-a) S /4 σ ]¹∕ ⁴ = 209,91 K **

**and the calculated by Tmean.planet equation: **

**Tmean.mars = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ]¹∕ ⁴ = 213,21 K**

** The difference between the Te Incomplete and the Tmean.planet equation is:**

** *[ Φ (β* N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴**

** For planet Mars we have:**

**Mars performs 1 rotation every ( 24,622hours / 24hours/day ) = 1,026 day**

** N = 1 /1,026 = 0,9747 rotations /day **

**Mars is a rocky planet, Mars’ surface solar irradiation accepting factor:**

** Φ mars = 0,47**

** cp.mars = 0,18 cal/gr oC, on Mars’ surface is prevalent the iron oxide Fe2O3**

**β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – it is a Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant**

** (β* N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ = (150*0,9747*0,18)¹∕ ⁴ =**

** = (26,3169) ¹∕ ⁴ = 2,265 **

**Φ = 0,47**

** [ Φ (β* N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

** = ( 0,47* 2,265 )¹∕ ⁴ =**

** = ( 1,06455)¹∕ ⁴ = 1,01576 **

**So the difference between these two equations' results for planet Mars is only 1,576 % !**

** And it is a coincident. **

**It is a coincident, but with very important consequences.**

**Let's explain:**

**Tsat.mean.mars = 210 K measured by satellites.**

**is almost equal with Te.mars.incomplete = 209,91 K**

**( but also with the newly calculated Tmean.mars = 213,21 K ).**

**So...**

** When measuring by satellites the **

**Tsat.mean.mars = 210 K**

** and calculating with incomplete effective temperature equation**

** Te.mars.incomplete = 209,91 K = 210 K**

**scientist were led to mistaken conclusions.**

** (They didn’t know about the Planet's Mean Temperature Equation yet).**

** First they assumed that the planet's effective and mean temperatures are equal, which is wrong.**

** Secondly they assumed that Earth without atmosphere should have the mean temperature value Tmean.earth, according to the incomplete equation calculation, **

**Te.earth.incomplete = 255 K and the Earth's mean temperature was assumed also being Tmean.earth = 255 K**

**At the same time the measured by satellites Tsat.mean.earth = 288 K. **

**The difference of Δ 33 oC was then attributed to the Earth’s atmosphere greenhouse warming effect.**

** Now we have the planet's Mean Temperature Equation that gives**

** Tmean.mars = 213,21 K.**

** This result is almost identical to the measured by satellites **

**Tsat.mean.mars = 210 K.**

** And the planet's Mean Temperature Equation gives very reasonable results for all the other planets without-atmosphere in the solar system.**

** We know now the Δ 33 oC does not exist. **

**The Tmean.earth = 287,74 K = Tsat.mean.earth = 288 K. **

**Tmean.earth = 255 K does not exist.**

** And I dare to assume now, that the planet's Mean Temperature Equation may be applied to all the planets without atmosphere in the Universe.**

** And I am convinced there is not any measurable greenhouse effect in Earth's atmosphere. Earth's atmosphere is very thin to have a detectable greenhouse effect.**

.

### The Original Milankovitch Cycle

**According to Milankovitch Ice Ages are generally triggered by minima in high-latitude Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, enabling winter snowfall to persist through the year and therefore accumulate to build Northern Hemisphere glacial ice sheets. Similarly, times with especially intense high-latitude Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, determined by orbital changes, are thought to trigger rapid deglaciations, associated climate change and sea level rise. But, at second thought, I concluded that Earth cannot accumulate heat on the continents’ land masses. Earth instead accumulates heat in the oceanic waters.**

### The Reversed Milankovitch Cycle

**Milankovitch’s main idea was that the glacial periods are ruled by planet’s movements forcing. At the right we have the Reversed Milankovitch cycle. The minimums in the reversed Milankovitch cycle are the maximums in the original. These two cycles, the original Milankovitch cycle and the reversed differ in time only by a half of a year. According to the reversed Milankovitch cycle there are long and very deep glacial periods and small and very short interglacial. The reversed cycle complies with the paleo geological findings. As we can see in the reversed Milankovitch cycle, we are getting now to the end of a long and a slow warming period. What we are witnessing as a Global Climate Change are the culmination moments at the end of that warming period.**

### The entire Greenhouse Gases Global Warming theory is an old Climate science

**And here is why:**

** Comparison of results the planet's Te calculated by the Incomplete Equation:**

** Te = [ (1-a) S / 4 σ ]¹∕ ⁴ **

**the planet's Tmean calculated by the planet's Mean Surface Temperature Equation:**

** Tmean.planet = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (1) **

**and the planet Tsat.mean measured by satellites: **

**Planet…Te.incompl….Tmean…Tsat.mean **

**Mercury……440 K…….325,83 K……..340 K**

** Earth………..255 K……..287,74 K…….288 K**

** Moon………..270,4 Κ….223,35 Κ…...220 Κ **

*Mars…….…209,91 K…..213,42 K…...210 K*

**Te.incomplete = [ (1-a) S /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ gives very confusing results:**

** Planet…Te.incomplete**

** Mercury……….440 K**

** Earth…………..255 K **

**Moon…………..270,4 Κ**

** Mars…………209,91 K**

** When inserting the values, this calculation yields a surface temperature of about Te = 255 K. Even though this value is not quite bad for a very simple model, it still deviates significantly from the actual value of Tmean.earth = 288 K.**

** So the old formula yields Te = 255 K ****instead of the actual**** Tmean.earth = 288 K...**

** But we have not finished yet:**

** This equation Te.incomplete = [ (1-a) S /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ also deviates significantly for the Mercury Te = 440 K, instead of the actual Tmean.mercury = 340 K**

** and it deviates significantly for the Moon Te = 270,4 K, instead of the actual Tmean.moon = 220 K.**

** It is time to abandon the old effective temperature Te.incomplete = [ (1-a) S /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ equation, because it gives very confusing results.**

** The 288 K – 255 K = 33 oC means the by atmosphere +Δ33 oC Earth's surface warming phenomenon, which does not exist in the real world.**

** There are only traces of greenhouse gasses.**

** The Earth’s atmosphere is very thin. There is not any measurable Greenhouse Gasses Warming effect on the Earth’s surface.**

** The entire Greenhouse Gases Global Warming theory is based on the old effective temperature Te.incomplete = [ (1-a) S /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ equation for the Earth's mean temperature calculation **

**Te.incomplete.earth = Tmean.earth = 255 K **

**which is wrong, because it does not exist.**

** When applying the Mean Temperature Equation**

** Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (1)**

**we have identical to the satellite measured temperatures results:**

** Planet.......Tmean…Tsat.mean**

** Mercury…..325,83 K……..340 K**

** Earth………..287,74 K……..288 K**

** Moon……….223,35 Κ……..220 Κ**

** Mars………..213,42 K……..210 K**

** The Earth's Tmean is calculated Tmean.earth = 287,74 K and it is identical to the measured by satellites the actual value of Tsat.mean.earth = 288 K.**

** Also almost identical are the calculated with the Equation**

** Mercury…….325,83 K = 340 K **

**Moon……….223,35 Κ = 220 Κ **

**and **

**Mars………..213,42 K = 210 K**

** Now everything falls in place and the entire Greenhouse Gases Global Warming theory becomes an old Climate science.**

**Because ****Tmean.earth = 255 K**

** does not exist.**

.

### Table 1. Comparison of Predicted vs. Measured Temperature for All Planets

**Table 1. Comparison of Predicted vs. Measured Temperature for All Planets**

**..............Distance. Flux. Factor. Bond. rot /day. surface.. cal /gr.oC....warming ......°K ........°K .........°K ........°K**

**................( AU ).. ( W/m² ) ..Φ ..Albedo ..N Spin ...Type........ Cp ......(β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴.......****.Te ....Te.correct....Tsv .....Tsat**

**Mercury 0,387 ...9082,7 ..0,47 ..0.068 ..0,00568 ...basalt......0,20 ......0,64250 .........(439,6) ....364,0 ... 325,83 ...340 **

**Venus ....0,723 ...2601,3 ....1 .....0,77 .....60/243 ...gases ......0,19 .......1,6287 ..........226,6 ....255,98 ......- ........737 **

**Earth ......1,0 ......1361 ....0,47 ...0,306 .......1,0 .......ocean ........1 .........3,4996 .........(254) .......211 .......287,74 ...288.**

** Moon ......1,0 ......1361 ....0,47 ...0,11 .....0,0339 ...regolith ....0,19 ......0,99141 ......(270,04) ....224 .....223,35 ....220 **

**Mars .....1,524 .....586,4 ..0,47 ...0,25 .....0,9747 ......rock .......0,18 ......2,26495 .......(209,8) .....174 .....213,11 ....210 **

**Jupiter ..5,20 ......50,37 .....1......0,503 ....2,417 ......gases ......2,95 ......5,7187 ..........102 .........102 .....158,4 ......165 at 1 bar level**

** Io ..........5,20 ......50,37 ......1 .....0,63 .....0,5559 .....rock .......0,145 ......1,8647 .........95,16 .....95,16 ....111,55 .....****110 **

**Europa ..5,20 .....50,37 ....0,47 ..0,63 .....0,2816 ......rock ...........1 ........2,5494 ........(95,16) ....78,83 ....99,56 .......102 **

**Ganymede 5,20 ..50,37 ...0,47 ..0,43 .....0,1398 ......rock ..........1 ........2,1398 ......(107,08) ....88,59 ....107,14 .....110 **

**Calisto ......5,20 ..50,37 .....1 .....0,22 .....0,0599 ......rock ..........1 .........1,7313 .....114,66 .....114,66 ...131,52 ....134 ±11 **

**Saturn ......9,58 ..14,84 .....1 .....0,342 ....2,273 ......gases .....3,074 ......5,6898 .......81 .............81 .......125,07 .....134 at 1 bar level **

**Enceladus 9,58 ..14,84 .....1 .....0,85 ......0,7299 .....rock ...........1 ........3,2347 .......55,97 .......55,97 ....75,06 .......75 **

**Tethys ......9,58 ..14,84.....1 .....0,70 ......0,52971 ....rock ..........1 ........2,9856 .......66,55 .......66,55 ....87,48 .......86 ± 1 **

**Titan .........9,58 ..14,84 ....1 ....0,22 ......0,06289 ...gases ....0,498 ......1,47223 .....84,52 .......84,52 ....96,03 .......93,7 **

**Uranus ....19,22 ...3,687 ..1 ....0,30 .......1,389 .......gases ....2,803 .......4,9159 .....58 MM * - 72,29 .......- ............76 at 1 bar level**

** Neptune .30,33 ...1,48 .....1 ...0,29 .......1,493 .......gases .....2,753 ......4,9830 .......46,4 .........46,4 ......69,31 ......72 at 1 bar level **

**Triton .....30,33 ... 1,48 ..0,47 ..0,76 .....0,1702 ...... rock ......0,4116 .....1,800 .......35,4 ........29,29 .....33,92 .......38 **

**Pluto ......39,48 ...0,874 .....1 ...0,50 .....0,1565 .......rock .......0,248 .......1,553 .......37 ...........37 ..........41,6 .........44 **

**Charon ...39,48 ...0,874 .....1 ...0,2 ......0,1565 ........rock ..........1 ..........2,2014 ....41,90 .......41,90 .....51,04 .......53**

### The faster a planet rotates (n2>n1) the higher is the planet’s average (mean) temperature T↑mean

**It is well known that when a planet rotates faster its daytime maximum temperature lessens and the night time minimum temperature rises.**

** But there is something else very interesting happens. **

**When a planet rotates faster it is a warmer planet. (it happens because Tmin↑↑ grows higher than T↓max goes down).**

** The understanding of this phenomenon comes from a deeper knowledge of the Stefan-Boltzmann Law.**

** It happens so because when rotating faster, the planet's surface has emission temperatures Te the new distribution to achieve. **

**So that is what happens: **

**The faster a planet rotates (n2>n1) the higher is the planet’s average (mean) temperature T↑mean. **

**It happens in accordance to the Stefan-Boltzmann Law.**

** Let's explain:**

** Assuming a planet rotates faster and Tmax2 -Tmax1 = -1°C. **

**Then, according to the Stefan-Boltzmann Law: **

**Tmin2 -Tmin1 > 1°C**

** Consequently **

**Tmean2 > Tmean1. **

**Assuming a planet rotates faster (n2>n1). **

**If on the solar irradiated hemisphere we observe the difference in average temperature **

**Tsolar2-Tsolar1 = -1°C**

** Then the dark hemisphere average temperature **

**Tdark2 -Tdark1 >1°C**

** Consequently the total average **

**Tmean2 > Tmean1 **

**So we shall have:**

** Tdark↑↑→ T↑mean ← T↓solar**

** The faster a planet rotates (n2>n1) the higher is the planet’s average (mean) temperature T↑mean.**

** A numerical example **

**Here it is the improved numerical example which proves,**** the Tmean > Te when the planet rotates fast enough: **

**As you will see in the numerical example, which I have shown below, when planet rotates faster, on the planet's solar irradiated side the Te.solar temperature subsides from 200 K to 199 K.**

** On the other hand on the planet's dark side, when planet rotates faster, the Te.dark temperature rises from 100 K to 107,126 K.**

** So when the solar irradiated side gets on Te.solar cooler by -1 degree °C, the dark side gets on Te.dark warmer by +7,126 degrees °C. **

**And as a result the planet's total Te temperature gets higher.**

** It happens so because when rotating faster (n2>n1) the planet's surface has emission temperatures Te the new distribution to achieve.**

** It happens so, because we have assumed planet emitting as a blackbody with two separate hemispheres. The solar hemisphere emitting some of the absorbed incident solar flux's energy, and the dark hemisphere emitting the rest of the absorbed solar flux's energy.**

** Also, when the two hemispheres blackbody planet rotating faster the energy in = energy out**

** balance should be met.**

** The faster rotation does not change the real planet's energy balance.**

** Also, the real planet never achieves uniform temperature on both sides, because it receives the solar flux only on the sunlit side.**

** Because we consider the faster rotating real planet at the same distance from the sun, with the same albedo and Φ factor -**

** energy in = energy out **

**balance should be met. **

**The numerical example: **

**Assuming a planet with two hemispheres' Te temperatures **

**Te.solar1 = 200 K, and Te.dark1 = 100 K **

**Assuming this planet rotates somehow faster (n2 > n1), so assuming the new Te.solar2 average temperature resulting Te.solar2 = 199 K.**

** What would be the planet's Te.dark2 then? **

**Jemit.solar1 = σ*(Te.solar1)⁴ , **

**σ*(200 K)⁴ = 1.600.000.000*σ for (n1) rot/day**

** Jemit.solar2 = σ*(Te.solar2)⁴ ,**

**σ*(199 K)⁴ = 1.568.000.000*σ for (n2) rot/day**

** Jemit.solar2 - Jemit.solar1 = **

**= 1.568.000.000*σ - 1.600.000.000*σ = **

**= - 31.700.000*σ is the difference in the Te solar side emitting intensity when (n2>n1) and 199 K - 200 K = - 1°C**

** So we have ( - 31.700.000*σ ) less emitting intensity on the solar side (2) when n2>n1. **

**It should be compensated by the increased emission on the dark side ( + 31.700.000*σ ) for the energy balance equation to get met:**

** Jemit.dark1 = σ*(Te.dark1)⁴ ,**

** (100 K)⁴ = 100.000.000**

** Jemit.dark2 = σ*(Te.dark2)⁴ ,**

**σ*(Te.dark2)⁴ = (100.000.000 + 31.700.000)*σ = 131.700.000*σ**

**The dark side higher temperature (2) to compensate the solar side cooler emission (2) by ( - 31.700.000 ) would be**

** Te.dark2 = (131.700.000)¹∕ ⁴ = 107,126 K**

** As we see in this numerical example, when the planet rotating faster (n2>n1) the Te temperature on the solar irradiated side subsides from 200 K to 199 K. **

**On the other hand the Te temperature, when planet rotating faster (n2>n1) on the dark side rises from 100 K to 107,126 K.**

** So when rotating faster (n2>n1) the solar irradiated planet's side gets on Te cooler by -1 degree °C, the planet's dark side gets on Te warmer by +7,126 degrees °C. **

**And as a result the planet's total Te temperature gets higher. **

**It happens so because when rotating faster (n2>n1) the planet's surface has emission temperatures Te the new distribution to achieve.**

** Consequently, when rotating faster, the planet's mean temperature rises.**

** Because Te.solar2-Te.solar1 = -1°C**

** Then the dark hemisphere's Te temperature**

** Te.dark2 -Te.dark1 = +7,126°C**

** And Tmean = [ Φ (1 - a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ **

**Tmean = [ Te⁴ (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴**

** Tmean.solar2 = [ (Te.solar1 -1°C)⁴ (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴**

** Tmean.dark2 = [ (Te.dark1 +7,126°C)⁴ (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ **

**(Tmean.solar1 + Tmean.dark1) / 2 < (tmean.solar2="" +="" tmean.dark2)="">**

** Consequently the total average **

**Tplanet.mean2 > Tplanet.mean1**

** So we shall have: **

**when n2>n1 **

**Tmean.dark↑↑→ T↑mean ← T↓mean.solar**

** The faster a planet rotates (n2>n1) the higher is the planet’s average (mean) temperature T↑mean.**

** Because Te.dark2↑↑ grows higher (+7,126°C) than the T↓e.solar2 lessens (-1°C). **

**Thus when a planet rotates faster its mean temperature is higher.**

** Conclusion:**

** Earth's faster rotation rate, 1 rotation per day, makes Earth a warmer planet than Moon.**

** Moon rotates around its axis at a slow rate of 1 rotation in 29,5 days.**

** Notice:**

** In the above numerical example we assumed a rotating planet blackbody with two hemispheres' Te.solar and Te.dark. **

**It was an assumption, because the blackbody by definition has a uniform temperature on its entire surface. **

**Also we assumed, that the blackbody somehow had accumulated some of the daytime solar energy. **

**In this numerical example we have a combination of the blackbody and the real planet emitting behavior. And it is also an assumption.**

** Real planet does not emit according to the exact Stefan-Boltzmann emission law. Real planet emits exactly according to the new Universal law:**

** Jemit.planet = 4σ Tmean⁴ /(β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ .**

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