### Venus' Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature calculation.

Venus' Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature calculation.

R = 0,723 AU, is the Venus’ distance from the sun in astronomical units

1/R² = 1,9130

Venus’ albedo: avenus = 0,76 Bond

Venus is a gases planet, Venus’ solar irradiation accepting factor Φvenus = 1

β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – is the Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation INTERACTING-Emitting Universal Law constant

N = 1/117 rotations /per earth day, is the planet's Venus solar day rotation spin.

cp.venus = 0,19 cal/gr*oC, it is because the surface is regolith – dry soil

σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant

So = 1.362 W/m² (So is the Solar constant)

Venus’ Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation Tmean.venus is:

Tmean.venus = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴

Τmean.venus = [ 1(1-0,76)1.362 W/m² 1,9130*(150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal *(1/117) rotations/day*0,19 cal/gr*oC)¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =

Τmean.venus = [ 0,24*1.362 W/m²1,9130*(150*0,008547*0,19)¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =

= [ 0,24*1.362 W/m²1,9130*(0,7025) /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ = Τmean.venus = ( 1.736.122.713,6)¹∕ ⁴

= Tmean.venus = 209,8 K

And we compare it with the Tsat.mean.venus = 735 K, measured by satellites.

What we see here is that planet Venus has a strong greenhouse warming effect due to the very thick and very rich in greenhouse gas CO2 atmosphere.

Venus' atmosphere composition:

96,5 % CO2 carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas

3,5 % N2

and

at ground level Venus' atmospheric density is

D = 65 kg/m³.