The Budget considers the planet's energy balance in Total, and not in average as the Greenhouse warming theory very mistakenly does. The Planet Radiative Energy Budget can be applied to all planets.
We have Φ for different planets' surfaces varying
0,47 ≤ Φ ≤ 1
And we have surface average Albedo "a" for different planets' varying
0 ≤ a ≤ 1
Φ is never less than 0,47 for planets (spherical shape).
Also, the coefficient Φ is "bounded" in a product with (1 - a) term, forming the Φ(1 - a) product cooperating term.
So Φ and Albedo are always bounded together. The Φ(1 - a) term is a coupled physical term.
We should have correctly estimated the planet radiative energy budget
CERES omits planet specular reflection.
Specular reflection from a parallel solar rays hitting planet spherical surface cannot be “seen” by spacecraft’s SW radiation measuring sensor.
Specular reflection from sphere never gets onto the sensor’s plate. Therefore planet specular reflection is not taken into account not only for Earth, but also for other smooth surface planets without atmosphere (Mercury, Moon, Mars, Europa, Ganymede).
Why it is a problem?
It is a problem, because by omitting the planet specular reflected portion of the incident on the planet surface solar flux the planet effective temperature (equilibrium temperature) Te is calculated wrongly.
To calculate planet's Te we should know the exact not reflected portion of the incident on the planet solar energy flux.
Te - planet effective temperature:
Te = [ (1-a) S /4σ ] ¹∕ ⁴
Te.correct - the planet corrected effective temperature:
Te.correct = [ Φ (1 - a) S /4σ ] ¹∕ ⁴
Φ - is the solar irradiation accepting factor (it is the planet surface spherical shape, and planet surface roughness coefficient)
Φ = 0,47 - for smooth surface planets without atmosphere
Φ = 1 - for heavy cratered without atmosphere planets
Φ = 1 - for gases planets
In the Table we have the planet effective Te and the planet corrected Te.correct (which are calculated with the Te.correct equation) comparison.
Mercury....439,6 K.....364 K
Earth..........255 K.......210 K
Moon.......270,4 Κ......224 K
Mars........209,91 K.....174 K
When comparing the Te and Te.correct it becomes obvious how important is the planet surface specular reflection portion for the correct calculation of the planet theoretical equilibrium temperatures.
To have calculated the planet equilibrium temperature we should have correctly estimated the planet radiative energy budget:
Energy in = energy out
Φ(1 - a)S πr² (W) is the correctly estimated planet's energy in (the "absorbed" not reflected portion of the incident solar energy).