# The Planet's Surface Mean Temperature Equation Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴

## Plus the introduction to the Reversed Milankovitch Cycle. Click above on the box for more

Triton: Voyager 2 photomosaic of Triton's sub-Neptunian hemisphere[caption 1]

Neptune: Image of Neptune taken by NASA's Voyager 2 in 1989

### 11. Triton’s (Neptune’s satellite) Surface Mean Temperature calculation

Tmean.triton

So = 1.362 W/m² (So is the Solar constant)

Triton’s albedo: atriton = 0,76

1/R² = 1/30,11² = 1/907 = 0,0011025

Triton’s sidereal rotation period is 5 days 21 hours

Triton does N = 1/5,875 rotations/ per day (synchronous rotation)

Triton is a rocky planet, with no atmosphere,

Triton’s surface irradiation accepting factor Φtriton = 0,47

Triton can be considered as a nitrogen (N2) 55 % crust surface planet,

Cp.nitrogen = 0,2448 cal/gr*oC,

cp.H2O = 1 cal/gr*oC,

cp.CO2 = 0,1435 cal/gr*oC

Cp.triton.surface = Cp.nitrogen*0,55 + Cp.H2O * 0,25 + Cp.CO2*0,20 = 0,2448*0,55 + 1*0,35 + 0,1435*0,1 = 0,13464 + 0,35 + 0,1435= 0,62814 cal/gr*oC

β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – it is the Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant

σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, a Stefan-Boltzmann constant

Triton’s surface mean temperature equation Tmean.triton is:

Tmean.triton = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴

Τmean.triton = { 0,47*(1-0,76)*1.362 W/m² *0,0011025*[150 *(1/5,875)* 0,62814]¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ }¹∕ ⁴ =

Tmean.triton = 34,94 K

Tsat.triton = 38 K (−235.2 °C).

### Mar's Effective Temperature calculation

Te.mars

(1/R²) = (1/1,524²) = 1/2,32

Mars has 2,32 times less solar irradiation intensity than Earth has

Mars’ albedo: amars = 0,25

N = 0,9747 rotations/per day, Planet Mars completes one rotation around its axis in 24 hours 37 min 22 s.

Mars is a rocky planet, Mars’ surface solar irradiation accepting factor: Φmars = 0,47

cp.mars = 0,18 cal/gr oC, on Mars’ surface is prevalent the iron oxide

β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – it is a Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant

σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant

So = 1.362 W/m² the Solar constant

Mar’s Effective Temperature Complete Formula is:

Te.mars = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴

Planet Mars’ Effective Temperature Te.mars is:

Te.mars = [ 0,47 (1-0,25) 1.362 W/m²*(1/2,32)*(150*0,9747*0,18)¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =

= ( 2.066.635.457,46 )¹∕ ⁴ = 213,21 K

Te.mars = 213,21 K

The calculated Mars’ effective temperature Te.mars = 213,21 K is only by 1,53% higher than that measured by satellites

Tsat.mean.mars = 210 K !