Corrected Effective Temperatures of the Planets and the Planets' Mean Surface Temperature Equation: Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴

Plus the introduction to the Reversed Milankovitch Cycle. Click above on the box for more

Europa: Imaged on 7 September 1996 by Galileo spacecraft.

Jupiter: Near-true colour view in 2019[a]

7. Europa’s (Jupiter’s satellite) Mean Surface Temperature Calculation

Tmean.europa

So = 1.361 W/m² (So is the Solar constant)

Europa’s albedo: aeuropa = 0,63

Europa is an ice-crust planet (rocky) without atmosphere, Europa’s surface irradiation accepting factor Φeuropa = 0,47

Europa’s surface consists of water ice crust

Cp.europa = 1cal/gr*oC

1/R² = 1/5,2044² = 0,0369 times lesser is the solar irradiation on Jupiter than that on Earth, the same on its satellite Europa.

Europa’s orbital period is 3,5512 d

Europa’s sidereal rotation period is synchronous

N = 1/3,5512 rotation /day

β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – it is the Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant

σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, a Stefan-Boltzmann constant

Europa’s mean surface temperature equation Tmean.europa is:

Tmean.europa = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴

Τmean.europa = { 0,47(1-0,63)1.362 W/m² *0.0369*[150* (1/3,5512)*1]¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴}¹∕ ⁴ = 

Tmean.europa = 99,557 K

Tsat.mean.europa = 102 K (- 171 oC)

.

http://www.cristos-vournas.com

  The faster a planet rotates (n2>n1) the higher is the planet’s average (mean) temperature T↑mean:

Tmin→ T↑mean ← Tmax

.