### Earth's average SW absorbed solar energy: Jsw.absorbed.average = 112,029 W/m²

** A planet reflects incoming short wave solar radiation. A planet's surface has reflecting properties.**

** 1. The planet's albedo "a". It is a surface quality dependent value. **

**2. The planet's spherical shape. For a smooth planet the solar irradiation reflection is 0,53*Jincoming. **

**What we had till now:**

** Jsw.incoming - Jsw.reflected = Jsw.absorbed **

**Here**

** Jsw.absorbed = (1-a)*Jsw.incoming **

**And**

** Jsw.reflected = a*Jsw.incoming**

** What we have now is the following: **

**Jsw.incoming - Jsw.reflected = Jsw.absorbed**

** Here**

** Jsw.absorbed = Φ* (1-a)*Jsw.incoming**

** And**

** Jsw.reflected = 0,53*a*Jsw.incoming **

**Where**

** Φ = (1-0,53) = 0,47**

** Φ = 0,47 Φ is a planet spherical surface solar irradiation accepting factor.**

**Conclusion:**

** A planet's absorbed fraction of the SW incoming radiation in total is:**

** Jsw.absorbed = 0,47*(1-a)*Jsw.incoming **

**For Planet Earth**

** Jsw.absorbed = 0,47*(1-a)*1.362 W/m² =**

** = 0,47*0,7*1.362W/m² = 448,098 W/m² **

**Averaged on the entire Earth's surface we obtain:**

** Jsw.absorbed.average = [ 0,47*(1-a)*1.362 W/m² ] /4 =**

** = [ 0,47*0,7*1.362W/m² ] /4 = 448,098 W/m² /4 =**

** = 112,029 W/m² **

**Jsw.absorbed.average = 112,029 W/m²**

### The global average absorbed solar SW radiation

**“The SW global average absorbed = 241 (W/m²) 1/15/2020”.**

**The satellites’ measured SW global average absorbed = 241 (W/m²) is the confirmation of Te = 255 K.**

**Let’s do the calculation:**

**Te.earth = [ (1-a) So /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**Te.earth = [241 (W/m²) /σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**Albedo is already counted, because the 241 (W/m²) is the absorbed, and 4 also, because it is the global surface average.**

**σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant**

**Te.earth = [ 241 (W/m²) /5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

**Te.earth = ( 4.250.440.917,108 ) ¹∕ ⁴ =**

**Te.earth = 255,33 K**

**So this 255,33 K is the earth’s emitting temperature according to the Stefan-Boltzmann law.**

**And notice, that the calculation being made by the use of the planet's effective temperature incomplete formula:**

**Te = [ (1-a) So /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**This planet's effective temperature incomplete formula is still in common use right now.**

**Let’s do the calculation again this time with the Planet's Effective Temperature Complete Formula:**

**Earth’s Without-Atmosphere Effective Temperature Calculation:**

**The SW global average absorbed = 241 (W/m²) 1/15/2020**

**Earth’s surface solar irradiation accepting factor Φearth = 0,47**

**β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – is a Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant**

**N = 1 rotation per day, is Earth’s sidereal rotation period**

**cp.earth = 1 cal/gr*oC, it is because Earth has a vast ocean.**

**σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant**

**Earth’s Without-Atmosphere Effective Temperature Complete Formula Te.earth is :**

**Te.earth = [ Φ (1-a) So (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**Albedo is already counted, because the 241 (W/m²) is the absorbed, and 4 also, because it is the global surface average.**

**Τe.earth = [ 0,47*241 (W/m²) (150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal *1rotations/day*1 cal/gr*oC)¹∕ ⁴ /5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

**Τe.earth = [ 0,47*241 (W/m²) (150*1*1)¹∕ ⁴ /*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

**Τe.earth = [ 0,47*241 (W/m²) (3,4996) /*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =**

**Te.earth = ( 6.991.176.225,75 ) ¹∕ ⁴ K =**

**Te.earth = 289.16 K**

**Conclusions:**

**“The SW global average absorbed = 241 (W/m²) 1/15/2020” is very well measured.**

**Satellites do not “see”, and therefore satellites cannot measure the actual SW solar reflection.**

**My name is Christos J. Vournas, M.Sc. mechanical engineer.**

I launched this site to have an opportunity to publish my scientific discoveries on the Climate Change.

I have been studying the Planet Earth’s Climate Change since November 2015.

First I discovered the **Reversed Milankovitch Cycle.**

Then I found the faster a planet rotates (**n2>n1**) the higher is the planet’s average (mean) temperature **T↑mean:**

** Tmin↑→ T↑mean ← T↓max** when **n2>n1** (it happens because **Tmin↑** grows faster than **T↓**max lessens).

The further studies led me to discover **the Rotating Planet Spherical Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law and the Planet's Effective Temperature Complete Formula.**

### About the satellites’ measurements – they are excellent, I never doubt, I believe in satellites’ measurements

**About the satellites’ measurements – they are excellent, I never doubt, I believe in satellites’ measurements.**

**What I would like to say is that satellites are not capable to “see”, satellites are not capable to measure the reflected from a planet’s surface solar short waves radiation.**

**The reflected from a planet’s surface solar short waves radiation never reach the satellites high resolution sensors, and therefore the reflected from a planet’s surface solar short waves radiation cannot be measured.**

**What satellites can “see” and measure is the planet’s albedo.**

**Albedo is not a primer solar SW radiation reflection.**

**Albedo is a surface quality, it is a secondary reflection and it is seen and measured by the satellites’ sensors.**

**http://www.cristos-vournas.com**

** The faster a planet rotates (n2>n1) the higher is the planet’s average (mean) temperature T↑mean:**

** Tmin↑→ T↑mean ← T↓max**

.

### Mar's Effective Temperature calculation

** Te.mars**

**(1/R²) = (1/1,524²) = 1/2,32**

**Mars has 2,32 times less solar irradiation intensity than Earth has**

**Mars’ albedo: amars = 0,25**

**N = 1 rotations/per day, Planet Mars completes one rotation around its axis in about 24 hours**

**Mars is a rocky planet, Mars’ surface solar irradiation accepting factor: Φmars = 0,47**

**cp.mars = 0,18 cal/gr oC, on Mars’ surface is prevalent the iron oxide**

**β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – it is a Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant**

**σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant**

**So = 1.362 W/m² the Solar constant**

**Mar’s Effective Temperature Complete Formula is:**

**Te.mars = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

**Planet Mars’ Effective Temperature Te.mars is:**

**Te.mars = [ 0,47 (1-0,25) 1.362 W/m²*(1/2,32)*(150*1*0,18)¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ = 213,59 K**

** Te.mars = 213,59 K**

**The calculated Mars’ effective temperature Te.mars = 213,59 K is only by 1,7% higher than that measured by satellites**

**Tsat.mean.mars = 210 K !**

.