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**Suggestion:**

**Have you "tuned" any parameters in derivation of these closely agreeing temperatures with the satellite measured ones?**

**And could the effect of an atmosphere be "hiding" in some of these parameters?**

**Answer:**

**These data, the calculated with a Planet Without-Atmosphere Surface MeanTemperature Equation and the measured by satellites are almost the same, very much alike. **

**They are almost identical, within limits, which makes us conclude that the Planet Without-Atmosphere Surface Mean Temperature Equation**

**Tmea.planet = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (1)**

** can calculate a planet mean temperatures.**

** It is a situation that happens once in a lifetime in science. Although the evidences existed, were measured and remained isolated information so far.**

** It was not obvious one could combine the evidences in order to calculate the planet’s temperature.**

** A planet-without-atmosphere effective temperature equation**

** Te = [ (1-a) S / 4 σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

** is incomplete because it is based only on two parameters: **

**1. On the average solar flux S W/m² on the top of a planet’s atmosphere and **

**2. The planet’s average albedo "a". **

**Those two parameters are not enough to calculate a planet effective temperature. **

**Planet is a celestial body with more major features when calculating planet effective temperature to consider. **

**The planet without-atmosphere effective temperature calculating formula has to include all the planet’s major properties and all the characteristic parameters. **

**3. The sidereal rotation period N rotations/day **

**4. The thermal property of the surface (the specific heat cp) **

**5. The planet surface solar irradiation accepting factor Φ (the spherical surface’s primer quality). **

**For Mercury, Moon, Earth and Mars without atmosphere Φ = 0,47. **

**Earth is considered without atmosphere because Earth’s atmosphere is very thin and it does not affect Earth’s Effective Temperature. **

**Altogether these parameters are combined in a Planet Without-Atmosphere Surface Mean Temperature Equation: **

**Te.planet = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (1) **

**The Planet Without-Atmosphere Surface Mean Temperature Equation produces very reasonable results:**

** Tmean.earth = 288,36 K, calculated with the Complete Formula, which is identical with the **

**Tsat.mean.earth = 288 K, measured by satellites.**

** Tmean.moon = 221,74 K, calculated with the Complete Formula, which is almost the same with the**

** Tsat.mean.moon = 220 K, measured by satellites.**

** A Planet Without-Atmosphere Surface Mean Temperature Equation gives us a planet mean temperature values very close to the satellite measured planet mean temperatures. **

**Suggestion:**

**Is there a difference for Earth having an ocean either than just beeing a dry rocky planet?**

**Answer: **

**Yes there is a big difference. Earth’s Surface Mean Temperature Equation Tmean.earth: **

**Tmean.earth = [ Φ (1-a) So (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴**

** Τmean.earth = [ 0,47(1-0,30)1.362 W/m²(150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal *1rotations/day*1 cal/gr*oC)¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ = **

**Τmean.earth = [ 0,47(1-0,30)1.362 W/m²(150*1*1)¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ = **

**Tmean.earth = 288,36 Κ**

** Moon’s Surface Mean Temperature Equation Tmean.moon:**

** Tmean.moon = [ Φ (1-a) So (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ **

**Tmean.moon = { 0,47 (1-0,136) 1.362 W/m² [150* (1/29,5)*0,19]¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ }¹∕ ⁴ = **

**Tmean.moon = 221,74 Κ **

**cp.earth = 1 cal/gr*oC **

**cp.moon = 0,19 cal/gr*oC **

**The cp.earth is 5,263 times higher. **

**If Earth was not a Planet ocean, but a pure rocky planet, then: **

**Tmean.rocky.earth = 288,36 Κ * [(0,19)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ = **

**Tmean.rocky.earth = 288,36 Κ * 0,9014 = 259,93 K **

**If the Earth was a rocky planet the Tmean.earth would be **

**Te.rocky.earth = 259,93 = 260 K **

**Suggestion:**

** Isn't the Equation an adjustment on the already satellites measured planet mean temperatures?**

**Answer:**

** A Planet Without-Atmosphere Effective Temperature Calculating Equation, the Te equation, which is based on the radiative equilibrium and on the Stefan-Boltzmann Law, and which is in common use right now: **

** Te = [ (1-a) S / 4 σ ]¹∕ ⁴ **

**is actually an incomplete Te equation and that is why it gives us very confusing results.**

** Comparison of results the planet Te calculated by the Incomplete Equation, the planet Te calculated by the Surface Mean Temperature Equation, and the planet Tsat.mean measured by satellites:**

*Planet or Te.incomplete Tmean Tsat.mean*

* moon equation equation measured*

*Mercury 437,30 K 323,11 K 340 K*

*Earth 255 K 288,36 K 288 K*

*Moon 271 K 221,74 K 220 K*

*Mars 209,91 K 213,59 K 210 K *

** **

**The Planet Without-Atmosphere Surface Mean Temperature Equation: **

**Tmean.planet = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (1) **

**is not a product of adjustments. **

**A Planet Without-Atmosphere Surface Mean Temperature Equation: **

**Tmean.planet = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (1)**

** is based on a newly discovered Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law.**

**The planet average Jabs = Jemit, per m² planet surface: **

**Jabs = Jemit **

** Φ*S*(1-a) /4 = σTmean⁴ /(β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ (W/m²)**

** Solving for Tmean we obtain the surface mean temperature: **

**Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (K) **

**Jemit = σΤmean⁴/(β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ (W/m²)**

** It is obvious now that the planet without-atmosphere effective temperature incomplete formula: **

**Te = [ (1-a) S / 4 σ ]¹∕ ⁴ **

**should not be in use anymore.**

**The satellites measured Planet Mean Temperatures we should relay on.**

**Suggestion:**

**"Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ (K)**

** For a very high N, will you get a very hot planet?" **

**Answer:**

**For the final Tmean result N (rotations/day) value is operated twice in fourth root .**

** Example: Let's say N = 100.000.000**

** [ ( 100.000.000 )¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ = ( 100 )¹∕ ⁴ = 3,1623**

** And for N = 1000.000.000 it is 3,6525**

** But for N = 10 it is 1,1548**

** If Earth were rotating 10 times as fast, Earth's mean surface temperature would be:**

** 288 K * 1,1548 = 332,58 K **

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