The Planet Mean Surface Temperature Equation: Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴

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Ganymede: True-color image taken by Galileo orbiter.

Jupiter: Near-true colour view in 2019[a]

5. Ganymede’s (Jupiter’s satellite) Mean Surface Temperature Calculation

Tmean.ganymede

So = 1.362 W/m² (So is the Solar constant)

Ganymede’s albedo: aganimede = 0,43 ± 0,02

Let's have aganimede = 0,41

Ganymede is a rocky planet without atmosphere, Ganymede’s surface irradiation accepting factor Φganimede = 0,47

σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant

β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – it is the Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant

Ganymede’s surface consists of water ice crust

Cp.ganymede = 1 cal/gr*oC

1/R² = 1/5,2044² = 0,0369 times lesser is the solar irradiation on Jupiter than that on Earth, the same on its satellite Ganymede

Ganymede’s orbital period is 7,15455 days

Ganymede’s sidereal rotation period is synchronous

N = 1/7,15455 rotations /per day

Ganymede’s mean surface temperature equation Tmean.ganymede is:

Tmean.ganymede = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴

Τmean.ganymede = { 0,47(1-0,41)1.362 W/m² *0.0369*[150*(1/7,15455)*1]¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ }¹∕ ⁴ =

= (131.488.426,14)¹∕ ⁴ = 107,08 K

Tmean.ganymede = 107,08 K

Tsat.mean.ganymede = 110 K (- 163 oC)

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 The faster a planet rotates (n2>n1) the higher is the planet’s average (mean) temperature T↑mean:

Tmin→ T↑mean ← Tmax

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