The Planet Mean Surface Temperature Equation: Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴

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The Blue Marble by the crew of Apollo 17 (1972)

Full Moon seen from North America

1. Earth’s Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature calculation

So = 1.361 W/m² (So is the Solar constant)

S (W/m²) is the planet's solar flux. For Earth S = So

Earth’s albedo: aearth = 0,306

Earth is a smooth rocky planet, Earth’s surface solar irradiation accepting factor Φearth = 0,47

(Accepted by a Smooth Hemisphere with radius r sunlight is S*Φ*π*r²(1-a), where Φ = 0,47)

β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – is a Rotating Planet Surface Solar Irradiation Absorbing-Emitting Universal Law constant

N = 1 rotation /per day, is Earth’s axial spin = 1 cal/gr*oC, it is because Earth has a vast ocean. Generally speaking almost the whole Earth’s surface is wet. We can call Earth a Planet Ocean.

σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant

Earth’s Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation is: [ Φ (1-a) So (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴


Τ = [ 0,47(1-0,306)1.361 W/m²(150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal *1rotations/day*1 cal/gr*oC)¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =

Τ = [ 0,47(1-0,306)1.361 W/m²(150*1*1)¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴ =

Τ = ( 6.854.905.906,50 )¹∕ ⁴ = 287,74 K = 287,74 Κ

And we compare it with the = 288 K, measured by satellites.

These two temperatures, the calculated one, and the measured by satellites are almost identical.



The surface mean temperature equation

Tmean = [ Φ (1-a) S (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴

produces remarkable results.

The calculated planets temperatures are almost identical with the measured by satellites.



Mercury....439,6 K…….325,83 K…..340 K

Earth……...255 K…......287,74 K…..288 K

Moon……..270,4 Κ……..223,35 Κ…..220 Κ

Mars……209,91 K……..213,21 K…..210 K


The 288 K – 255 K = 33 oC difference does not exist in the real world.

There are only traces of greenhouse gasses.

The Earth’s atmosphere is very thin. There is not any measurable Greenhouse Gasses Warming effect on the Earth’s surface.


 The faster a planet rotates (n2>n1) the higher is the planet’s average (mean) temperature T↑mean:

Tmin→ T↑mean ← Tmax